276b BM failure Flashcards Preview

heme/onc > 276b BM failure > Flashcards

Flashcards in 276b BM failure Deck (20):
1

Aplastic anemia - what is it? what can cause it?

failure/destruction of myeloid stem cells (hematopoietic precursors)

due to:
most are idiopathic (autoimmune?)
radiation/drugs
viruses (B19, EBV, HIV, HCV)
Fanconi anemia --> defective DNA repair/telemere length

2

Aplastic anemia - what do cells look like on smear? BM biopsy?

normal cell morphology, but severe pancytopenia (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia)

BM is hypocellular w/ more fat (takes up entire space)

3

Aplastic anemia - symptoms?

fatigue, malaise, pallor

purpura, mucosal bleeding

infection

4

Aplastic anemia - Rx?

immunosuppression

BM transplant (allogeneic)

transfusion

CSF

5

Myelodysplastic syndrome - what is it?

stem cell disorders (clonal, malignant HSC) --> ineffective hematopoiesis --> defective cell maturation of all non-lymphoid lineages

6

Myelodysplastic syndrome - risk of what disease?

AML (acute myelogenous leukemia)

7

Myelodysplastic syndrome - typical PMN appearance? when do you see it? RBC?

Pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly

PMN with bilobed nuclei connected by a thin filament of chromatin

seen after chemo

ringed sideroblasts (Prussian blue --> stains Fe in ribosomes)

8

Myelodysplastic syndrome - what are the findings?

low reticulocytes despite anemia, hypercellular BM

9

Myelodysplastic syndrome - what causes it and what age group?

de novo mutations or environmental exposure (radiation, benzene, chemo)

>65 years old

10

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - what is it?

clonal, malignant proliferation of myeloid stem cells that can't differentiate into mature cells

11

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - who gets it?

65+ years

12

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - risk factors?

chemo (alkylating), radiation, myeloproliferative disorders, DS

13

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - findings

Auer rods

Peroxidase + cytoplasmic inclusions

increased circulating myeloblasts on smear

14

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - clinical features?

fatigue, fever, sweats

infections

cytopenias (anemia, thrombocytopenia)

leukocytosis

coagulation disorders --> DIC

15

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - who gets it?

<15 years
kids with DS

16

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - presentation

mediastinal mass - big thymus --> superior vena cava syndrome

17

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - BM and smear? cell markers?

increased lymphoblasts

TdT+ (marker of pre-T and pre-B cells)
CD10, 20+ (pre B cells only)
CD3 (T cell marker)

18

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - clinical features?

CNS and testes can be involved

BM failure - pallor, lethargy, infection

weight loss

unintentional weight loss

19

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - morphology

lymphoblasts - have huge nuclei and sometimes vacuoles

20

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - cytogenetics with good prognosis

t(12:21)