Flashcards in 276b BM failure Deck (20):
Aplastic anemia - what is it? what can cause it?
failure/destruction of myeloid stem cells (hematopoietic precursors)
most are idiopathic (autoimmune?)
viruses (B19, EBV, HIV, HCV)
Fanconi anemia --> defective DNA repair/telemere length
Aplastic anemia - what do cells look like on smear? BM biopsy?
normal cell morphology, but severe pancytopenia (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia)
BM is hypocellular w/ more fat (takes up entire space)
Aplastic anemia - symptoms?
fatigue, malaise, pallor
purpura, mucosal bleeding
Aplastic anemia - Rx?
BM transplant (allogeneic)
Myelodysplastic syndrome - what is it?
stem cell disorders (clonal, malignant HSC) --> ineffective hematopoiesis --> defective cell maturation of all non-lymphoid lineages
Myelodysplastic syndrome - risk of what disease?
AML (acute myelogenous leukemia)
Myelodysplastic syndrome - typical PMN appearance? when do you see it? RBC?
PMN with bilobed nuclei connected by a thin filament of chromatin
seen after chemo
ringed sideroblasts (Prussian blue --> stains Fe in ribosomes)
Myelodysplastic syndrome - what are the findings?
low reticulocytes despite anemia, hypercellular BM
Myelodysplastic syndrome - what causes it and what age group?
de novo mutations or environmental exposure (radiation, benzene, chemo)
>65 years old
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - what is it?
clonal, malignant proliferation of myeloid stem cells that can't differentiate into mature cells
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - who gets it?
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - risk factors?
chemo (alkylating), radiation, myeloproliferative disorders, DS
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - findings
Peroxidase + cytoplasmic inclusions
increased circulating myeloblasts on smear
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) - clinical features?
fatigue, fever, sweats
cytopenias (anemia, thrombocytopenia)
coagulation disorders --> DIC
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - who gets it?
kids with DS
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - presentation
mediastinal mass - big thymus --> superior vena cava syndrome
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - BM and smear? cell markers?
TdT+ (marker of pre-T and pre-B cells)
CD10, 20+ (pre B cells only)
CD3 (T cell marker)
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - clinical features?
CNS and testes can be involved
BM failure - pallor, lethargy, infection
unintentional weight loss
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) - morphology
lymphoblasts - have huge nuclei and sometimes vacuoles