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Flashcards in 3 Muscles of the Back Deck (30):
1

extrinsic back muscles

**hypaxial

superficial extrinsic group
intermediate extrinsic group

I: ventral rami of spinal nerves

2

muscles of the superficial extrinsic group

trapezius
latissimus dorsi
rhomboid major
rhomboid minor
levator scapulae

3

trapezius

**superficial extrinsic group

O: nuchal ligament + spinous process C7 – T12
I: clavicle + medial border of scapula
A: elevate, retract, rotate scapula superiorly
N: CNXI + C3-C4

4

latissimus dorsi

**superficial extrinsic group

O: spinous process T7 – T12 + iliac crest + thoracolumbar fascia
I: intertubercular groove of humerus
A: extend, adduct, medially rotate humerus
N: thoracodorsal nerve

5

rhomboid major

**superficial extrinsic group

O: spinous process T2-T5
I: medial border of scapula
A: retract/rotate scapula inferiorly + fix scapula against thoracic wall
N: dorsal scapular nerve

6

rhomboid minor

**superficial extrinsic group

O: spinous process C7-T1
I: medial border of scapula
A: retract/rotate scapula inferiorly + fix scapula against thoracic wall
N: dorsal scapular nerve

7

levator scapulae

**superficial extrinsic group

O: transverse process C1 – C4
I: superior angle of scapula
A: elevate + rotate scapula inferiorly
N: dorsal scapular nerve

8

muscles of the intermediate extrinsic group

serratus posterior superior
serratus posterior inferior

9

serratus posterior superior

**intermediate extrinsic group

SA: nuchal ligament + spinal process C7 – T3
IA: superior border of ribs 2 – 4
A: elevate ribs
N: intercostal nerve 2 – 5

10

serratus posterior inferior

**intermediate extrinsic group

SA: spinal process T11 – L2
IA: inferior border of ribs 8-12
A: depress ribs
N: T9 – T12

11

(intrinsic) deep back muscles

**aka epaxial

superficial group
intermediate group
deep group

I: dorsal rami of spinal nerve

12

deep superficial group

splenius capitis
splenius cervicis

13

splenius capitis

**deep superficial group

O: nuchal ligament + spinal process C7 – T6
I: mastoid process
A: (bilateral) extend head/neck
(unilateral) lateral flexion of neck + ipsilateral rotation of head
N: dorsal rami

14

splenius cervicis

**deep superficial group

O: nuchal ligament + spinal process C7 – T6
I: transverse process C1 – C3
A: (bilateral) extend head/neck
(unilateral) lateral flexion of neck + ipsilateral rotation of head
N: dorsal rami

15

deep intermediate group

(erector spinae)
iliocostales
longissimus
spinales

**I Love Spaghetti

16

iliocostales

**deep intermediate group - erector spinae lateral (broadest)

O: posterior iliac crest + posterior sacrum + spinal process of lumbar/sacral vertebra
I: ribs + transverse process of cervical vertebrae
A: (bilateral) extend vertebral column y head/neck
(unilateral) ipsilateral flexion of vertebral column
N: dorsal rami

subtypes: lumborum, thoracis, cervicis

17

longissimus

**deep intermediate group - erector spinae middle

O: posterior iliac crest + posterior sacrum + spinal process of lumbar/sacral vertebra
I: ribs & transverse process of cervical/thoracic vertebrae
mastoid process
A: (bilateral) extend vertebral column y head/neck
(unilateral) ipsilateral flexion of vertebral column
N: dorsal rami

subtypes: thoracis, cervicis, capitis

18

spinales

**deep intermediate group - erector spinae medial (narrowest)

O: posterior iliac crest + posterior sacrum + spinal process of lumbar/sacral vertebra
I: spinal process of cervical/thoracic vertebrae
A: (bilateral) extend vertebral column y head/neck
N: dorsal rami

subtypes: thoracis cervicis

19

deep deep group

(transversospinalis group)
semispinalis
multifidus
rotatores

interspinales
intertransversarii

20

transversospinalis group

deep deep group

semispinalis
multifidus
rotatores

**Says Mama Ragu

21

semispinalis

**deep deep (transversospinalis) group

O: transverse process
I: spinal process of more superior vertebrae
A: contralateral rotation + (bilateral) extend y stabilize vertebral column
N: dorsal rami

subtypes: thoracis, cervicis, capitis

22

multifidus

**deep deep (transversospinalis) group

O: transverse process
I: spinal process of more superior vertebrae
A: contralateral rotation + (bilateral) extend y stabilize vertebral column
N: dorsal rami

powerful rotator
very meaty compared to rotatores

23

rotatores

**deep deep (transversospinalis) group

O: transverse process
I: spinal process of more superior vertebrae
A: contralateral rotation + (bilateral) extend y stabilize vertebral column
N: dorsal rami

powerful rotator

24

interspinales

**deep deep group

O: unite spinal process of consecutive vertebrae
I: unite spinal process of consecutive vertebrae
A: extend vertebral column
N: dorsal rami

25

intertransversarii

**deep deep group

O: unite transverse process of consecutive vertebrae
I: unite transverse process of consecutive vertebrae
A: (bilateral) extend vertebral column
(unilateral) ipsilateral flexion of vertebral column
N: ventral rami

26

subocciptal muscles

rectus capitis posterior major
rectus capitis posterior minor
obliquus capitis superior
obliquus capitis inferior

I: subocciptal nerve (dorsal rami)
FCN: posture, aid in head rotation

**direction of fibers gives clue toaction

27

rectus capitis posterior major

**suboccipital muscle

O: spinal process C2
I: inferior nuchal line (occipital bone)
A: (bilateral) extend @ C0 – C1
(unilateral) ipsilateral rotation @ C1 – C2
N: suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)

28

rectus capitis posterior minor

**suboccipital muscle

O: posterior arch C1
I: inferior nuchal line (occipital bone)
A: (bilateral) extend @ C0 – C1
(unilateral) ipsilateral rotation @ C1 – C2
N: suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)

29

obliquus capitis superior

**suboccipital muscle

O: transverse process C1
I: occipital bone
A: extension & lateral flexion of head
N: suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)

30

obliquus capitis inferior

**suboccipital muscle

O: spinal process C2
I: transverse process C1 (does not touch occipital bone)
A: ipsilateral rotation of head
N: suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus C1)