5 LE Pelvis + Perineum Flashcards Preview

ANP402 > 5 LE Pelvis + Perineum > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5 LE Pelvis + Perineum Deck (47):
1

pelvis

part of body surrounded by pelvic girdle
- lies below + is continuous w/ abdomen
- part of birth canal

2

anatomical position of pelvis

a bowl that is tilted forward
- pubic symphysis + ASIS are in same vertical plane

3

features of the pelvis

greater (false) pelvis
lesser (true) pelvis

4

greater pelvis

"false pelvis"
superior to pelvic brim

5

greater pelvis FCN

protect + support inferior abdominal viscera (shield)

6

lesser pelvis

"less pelvis"
inferior to pelvic brim
- pelvic inlet/pelvic outlet = tip of coccyx

7

pelvic cavity

between brim + pelvic outlet

8

lesser pelvis contains

distal GI tract (rectum/anus)
urinary tract (bladder)
reproductive organs

9

male pelvis

thicker bones + heavy

more prominent markings

smaller pelvis

deep greater pelvis

narrow/deep, tapering lesser pelvis

(pelvic inlet - superior) heart-shaped, narrow

(pelvic outlet - inferior) comparatively small

(pubic arch) narrow

10

female pelvis

thin + light bones

less prominent markings

larger pelvis

shallow greater pelvis

narrow/deep, tapering lesser greater pelvis

(pelvic inlet - superior) oval + rounded, wide

(pelvic outlet - inferior) comparatively large

(pubic arch) wide >80˚

oval obturator foramen

small acetebulum

(greater sciatic notch) almost 90˚

flat, wide, short sacrum

everted ischial tuberosities

11

types of pelves

android
anthropoid
gynecoid
platypeliod

12

android pelvis

heart-shaped pelvis
- typically male
- 20% of white females

**android = robot, robot has no heart

13

anthropoid pelvis

oval-shaped pelvis
- typically male
- common in black females

**ant has oval head like anthropoid

14

gynecoid pelvis

round-shaped pelvis
- typically female
- 50% of females
- best for childbirth

15

platypelloid pelvis

pelvis that is flat by sacrum
- rare
- only 3% of females
- causes most problems during childbirth

**platypus has flat tail... platypelloid pelvis has flat top

16

pelvic walls

anterior wall
lateral walls
posterior wall

17

anterior pelvic wal

pubic bones
rami
symphysis

18

lateral pelvic wall

hipbone
obturator membrane
obturator internus muscle

19

posterior pelvic wall

sacrum
coccyx
piriformis muscle
sacrotuberous ligament
sacrospinous ligament

20

pelvic floor

formed by the bowl / funnel-shpaed pelvic diaphragm
- located btwn lesser pelvis + perineum

21

pelvic diaphragm

coccygeas + levator ani

22

pelvic floor FCN

(1) support pelvic viscera

(2) counteract increase intra-abdominal pressure from coughing, sneezing, exerted exhale

23

injury to pelvic floor

prominent during childbirth
- may cause prolapse of vagina/rectum (organ comes out of hole when not supposed to)
- may cause urinary + fecal incontinence (unable to hold it in)

**kegel exercises for prevention

24

muscles of the levator ani

puborectalis "looper around pooper"
pubococcygeous
iliococcygeous

**hay 5 but only need to know 3

25

levator ani

O: pubic + pelvic fascia + ischial spine
I: external anal sphincter, coccyx, central perineal tendon
A: support pelvic viscera + counteract increase intra-abdominal pressure + maintain urinary fecal continence
N: pudendal nerve

26

coccygeus muscle

"ischiococcygeous"

O: ischial spine
I: sacrum + coccyx
A: support pelvic viscera + counteract increase intra-abdominal pressure + flex coccyx
N: pudendal nerve

27

perineum

shallow compartment below pelvic diaphragm btwn thighs
- abducted thighs = diamond-shaped area

28

perineum boundaries

(front) pubic symphysis

(back) tip of coccyx

ischial tuberosities

29

perineum triangles (2)

(front) urogential triangle

(back) anal triagnle

30

anal triangle

(perineum) pierces pelvic diaphragm
- surrounded by internal/external anal sphincters
- continuation of pelvic floor

31

ischioanal (ischiorectal) fossae

wedge-shaped spaces btwn skin + pelvic diaphragm
- contains fat
- passage for nerves + vessels
- avascular (hard to treat infections here w/ antibodies)

32

pudendeal canal

sheath of CT that holds VAN
- part of anal triangle
- horizontal passageway
- lateral wall ischioanal fossa
- internal pudendal vessels, pudendal nerve + nerve to obturator internus enter @ lesser sciatic notch
- supplies, drains y innervates most of perineum

33

pudendal nerve block

numbs S2-S4 dermatomes, most of perineum y 25% of vagina
- older method
- used in childbirth
- not used as much
- does not numb uterus, cervix y 75% of upper vagina
- still feel contractions
- does not effect baby
- used for episiotomy (vaginal repair)

34

fascial coverings of the urogential triangle

superficial fascia
deep fascia

35

superficial fascia (urogenital triangle)

fatty fascia
- membranous (perineal) fascia

36

deep fascia (urogenital triangle)

perineal membrane
- anchors external genitalia (penis/scrotum + vulva)

37

urogenital triangle

part of perineum
- perineal muscles
- external genitalia
- supplied by internal pudendal artery + internal pudental vein + pudendal nerve

38

male external genitalia

penis
scrotum
distal urethra

39

female external genitalia

vulva/pudendum
clitoris
mons pubis
labia
vaginal opening
vestibular glands

40

superficial perineal muscles (3)

superficial transverse perineal
bulbospongiosus
ischiocavernosus

41

perinal body

central part of attachment for sacral muscles between

42

superficial transverse perinal

superficial perineal muscles

A: resist increase intra-abdominal pressure + support pelvic floor + fix perineal body
N: pudendal nerve

43

bulbospongiosus

superficial perineal muscle

A: support pelvic floor
(males) assist w/ erection, ejaculations y nicturition (urination)
(females) control vaginal opening + assist in clitoral erection
N: pudendal nerve

44

ischiocavernosus

superficial perineal muscle

A: compress erectile tissue to help maintain erection
N: pudendal nerve

45

deep perineal muscles (2)

deep transverse perineal
external urethral sphincter

46

deep transverse perineal

deep perineal muscle

A: resist increase intra-abdominal pressure + support pelvic floor + fix perineal body
N: pudendal nerve

47

external urethral spincter

deep perineal muscle

A: compress urethra to maintain urinary continence
N: pudendal nerve