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1

They are injected to disinfect, temporarily preserve and restore the dead human body without causing objectionable change in the tissues.

Vascular (arterial) fluids

2

Generally classified by index: (the number of grams of formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of water; usually given in a percentage).

Vascular (arterial) fluids

3

Arterial fluid classification by index

StrongMediumWeak

4

Having an index of 28 - 36. Causes a rapid tissue coagulation.Causes a definite degree of firmness, used most often on “special cases.” (decomposition, edema, outgoing, drowning, etc.)37% by weight and 40 % by volume

Strong (high)

5

Having an index of 19 - 27.Sometimes referred to as semi-firming or cosmetic fluid. (Oil based / cosmetic fluid).Results in a moderate firming of tissues. Normal Cases

Medium (cosmetic arterial fluid)

6

Any fluid with an index of 10 - 18. Produces a minimum firmness of tissues.Infant cases or adults 80 lbs or less.An index of 8 is the lowest that it would go.

Weak

7

Chemical which inactivates saprophytic bacteria, renders unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition.

PRESERVATIVE

8

1. Inactivated the chemical group of proteins (muscles)2. Inhibits further decomposition3. Inactivates some enzymes4. Kills some microorganisms – not all5. Destroys odorsThese are actions or methods of __________

preservative chemicals:

9

General formula (R-CHO) common name Formaldehyde.

Aldehydes

10

HCHO or CH 2 0In its free state it is a gas – soluble in water which forms a formula. Water is the universal solvent. Every solvent has a different saturation rate.

Formaldehyde (methanol)

11

Colorless gasHas an irritating and unpleasant odor – pungent Freely soluble in water Combines with tissue protein Is a MONOALDEHYDE (one functional aldehyde group; H-"CHO")These are characteristics of ___________

formaldehyde

12

Formaldehyde is produced by the

partial oxidation of methylalcohol (methanol)

13

a dehydrating chemical

formaldehyde

14

another member of the formaldehyde family that consists of two functional aldehyde grouops

Gluteraldehyde

15

Gluteraldehyde is classified as a.....

dialdehyde

16

Gluteraldehyde reacts with.....

protein over a wide pH range

17

Rigor mortis is a post mortem chemical change with a pH of....

5

18

general formula R-OH with name ending in “-OL”

alcohols

19

Two members of the alcohol family

Methyl alcoholEthyalcohol

20

Methanol or wood alcohol

Methyl alcohol

21

Used commercially to manufacture formaldehydeAntipolymerizing agent (Added to prevent poloritization)

Methyalcohol

22

(ethanol or grain alcohol)

Ethyalcohol

23

obtained by the distillation of coal tar. Formula:

Phenol

24

uses of Phenol in the prep room

cauterizerbleaching agent

25

phenol when used to prevent leakage on embalmed bodies would be a.....

cauterizer

26

phenol when injected, not used as a surface application would be a....

bleaching agent

27

Chemicals added for the purpose of destroying disease causing microorganisms.

Supplementary GERMICIDES

28

2 examples of supplementary germicides

Glutaraldehyde Quaternary ammonium compounds

29

better disinfectant used as a supplementary germicide.

Glutaraldehyde

30

agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral, nasal cavities, and instruments.EXAMPLES: Benzalkonium Chloride & Zephrian Chloride

Quaternary ammonium compounds

31

Chemicals which retard the tendency of blood to become more viscous by natural postmortem processes or prevent adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals.

ANTICOAGULANTS

32

This process is primarily accomplished by breaking down the calcium in the blood and water. Also known as water conditioners or water softeners. These chemicals help keep blood in a liquid state.

ANTICOAGULANTS

33

Examples of anticoagulants:

Sodium citrateSodium salt of EDTA

34

EDTA stands for....

EthylenediaminetetrasodiumacetateNOT FOR TESTING PURPOSES

35

Has dual purpose in the embalming process. White, odorless, crystalline or granular material is often used for its anticoagulation. This compound inactivates calcium in the blood as well as in the water supply. W/O calcium, blood coagulation does not occur.

Sodium citrate

36

2nd chemical that has dual purpose in the embalming process. Very effective sequestering or chelating agents, means – they are readily combined with calcium ions to prevent blood coagulation and also to remove hardness chemicals from the water supply.

Sodium salt of EDTA

37

Liquids that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids.They must serve as the carrier of the components found in the arterial solution.

vehicle

38

The most common vehicle used for embalming chemicals is ____________

water

39

________ will also serve as a _______.

alcoholsvehicle

40

any solution in which alcohol is the vehicle is known as a _____.

tincture

41

most common use of alcohol as a vehicle would be ____________

cavity fluid

42

Chemicals having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant odor.

PERFUMING AGENTS OR MASKING AGENTS

43

Examples of perfuming agents

Methylsalicylate (oil of wintergreen)Benzaldehyde (oil of almonds)Oil of sassafrasOil of cloves

44

Perfuming agents _______________ the effects that formaldehyde has on the operator.

do not eliminate

45

Substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution and/or tissues.

DYES (coloring agents)

46

Classifications of Dyes (coloring agents)

Cosmetic (active)Non-cosmetic (inactive)

47

will impart a color to the body tissue

cosmetic dye (active)

48

will stain the concentrated arterial fluid

non-cosmetic dye (inactive)

49

examples of dyes

1. Eosin - red2. Ponceau red - red3. Erythrosine - brown-red tint.

50

A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smaller apertures.

surfactants

51

surfactants are also called...

surface tension reducerswetting agentssurface active agents

52

Surfactants are used in __________________________

promoting fluid diffusion

53

chemicals in dishwashing detergents that prevent spots on glasses

surfactants

54

example of surfactants

Sulfonate oils

55

An example of sulfonate oils is what?

sodium lauryl sulfate (coconut oil)

56

This is the 2nd definition for___________.Chemicals which control the rate and extent of the embalming operation.

Modifying Agents

57

Types of modifying agents

humectantsbuffers

58

A chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture (chemical that helps to control dehydration)

Humectants (moisture retainers)

59

examples of buffers

Boraxcitrates sodium salt of EDTA sodium phosphates

60

Chemicals used as humectants:

a. Glycerol – thick substance, Contains 3 OH b. Sorbitol- Contains 5 OH c. Lanolin’s – emollient, massage stuff, liquid based.d. Glycols – has 2 OH groups – active ingredients in radiator fluid.

61

Name 3 chemicals used as humectants that are part of the alcohol family.

GlycerolSorbitolGlycols

62

Chemicals that will affect the acid-base balance (pH) within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissue.

Buffers

63

1. Preservatives (alcohols, aldehydes, phenol)2. Germicides3. Vehicle (primarily alcohols)4. Perfuming agentsThis is the composition of _____________

cavity fluid

64

reduces the hardening and graying action of formaldehyde

borax

65

1. Anticoagulants2. Surfactants3. Humectants4. Vehicle (primarily water)5. Water conditioning agents5. Contain NO preservatives (very little, if any)These are components of ______________

pre-injection fluids

66

What are the two uses of Sodium citrate and Sodium salt of EDTA?

AnticoagulantsBuffers

67

Bleaching agentsHigh concentration of dyeLow formaldehyde (HCHO) contentThese are components of _____________

jaundice fluids

68

Formulated to produce maximum disinfection and preservation with a minimum amount of fluid.

CAVITY FLUIDS

69

Plaster of Paris - dehydrating agentParaformaldehyde - disinfectantWood powder - moisture absorbentThese are compositions of __________

hardening compounds

70

Fluid injected primarily to prepare the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative vascular solution. These fluids will also help keep the blood in a liquid state.

PRE-INJECTION FLUIDS

71

A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice; usually with a low formaldehyde content.Most are red in color

JAUNDICE FLUIDS

72

A chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb moisture and has a limited amount of disinfection ability.

HARDENING COMPOUNDS

73

pre-injection is done _________ you add any chemical that contains ______________

beforeformaldehyde

74

This fluid contains copious (abundant) amounts of anticoagulants and very little, if any, preservatives.

pre-injection fluid

75

a fluid(s) used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of the vascular (arterial) solution

co-injection fluids

76

humectants (moisture retainers)buffersanticoagulants (water conditioning agent)surfactants or surface active agentsThese are types of ______________

modifying agents

77

Types of arterial fluid preservatives...

aldehydesalcoholsphenolic compounds (phenol)

78

supplementary germicides

glutaraldehydequaternary ammonium compounds (quats)

79

control the rate and extent of embalming

modifying agents

80

examples of chemicals used as humectants

glycolsglycerolsorbitallanolins (only one not a member of alcohol family)

81

insure that regardless of what the pH is at the time of embalming, it will not affect embalming.

buffers (confirm this definition)

82

examples of chemicals used as buffers

boraxsodium phosphatessodium citrate (has 2 uses)sodium salt of EDTA (has 2 uses)

83

chemicals which prevent blood from clottingonly work on post-mortem clots

anticoagulants

84

which chemicals use a dual purpose...as buffers and anticoagulants?

sodium citratesodium salt of EDTA

85

surface active agents (wetting agents)

surfactants

86

examples of chemicals used as surfactants

sulfonatesodium laurylsulfate (most common used- for testing purposes)

87

dyes

eosinponceuerythrosine

88

A chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so that it can flow through smallerareas

surfactants (get definition)

89

deodorants

methylsalicylate benzaldehydeoils of sassafrasoil of cloves

90

perfuming agents/masking agents

deodorant

91

methylsalicylate is also called...

oil of wintergreen

92

benzaldehyde is also called

oil of almonds

93

vehicles

water alcohols

94

which vehicle is most common for vascular fluids?

water

95

which vehicle is most common for cavity fluid?

alcohol

96

any substance that hinders/imperils life or health when absorbed into the body

poison

97

poisonous substance produced by higher plants, animals, or bacteria that is toxic or poisonous to humans.

toxin

98

amount of poison or radiation necessary to kill 50% or 1/2 of the group to which it has been given

LD-50

99

LD-50 stands for...

lethal dose 50%,

100

smallest dose of poison or radiation on record that causes death.

MLD

101

MLD stands for...

Minimum Lethal Dose

102

poisonous substance only released from within the cell when the organism producing it is destroyed.

endotoxin

103

common example of endotoxin

meningitis

104

botcholism, cholera, staph (ptomaine), food poisoning, tetanus, diphtheria are examples of....

exotoxin

105

liquid used in liptense, external sealers, primarily used as solvents.

acetones

106

chemicals that have the presence of at least one halogen. Group 7 element on the periodic table.

alkyl halides

107

Common name for alkyl halides is

salt formers

108

Common type of alkyl halides used as a disinfectant

Chloroform

109

Common type alkyl halides used as a solvent or used as instrument disinfection

Carbon Tectrachloride

110

used in powder form, added to jaundice fluids as active red dye

amaranth

111

amaranth is also known as_____________

(red dye #2)

112

white crystal solid substance, added to hardening compounds & preservative powders. Used as a herbicide

amitrole

113

active ingredient in many disinfectants terminal disinfection used in prep-room, used to neutralize formaldehyde.

ammonia

114

ammonia is also known as...

NH3

115

How would you clean up a formaldehyde spill?

neutralize it with ammonia

116

derived from a tree with the same name, acts as a key tone hazardous chemical

camphor

117

given name because it is derived from coal tar

cresol (look up)

118

used as a disinfectant/deodorizer air freshener

Cresol/Lysol (look up)

119

light brown powder used as a fungicide and bactericide. it kills bacteria and fungusit can also prevent future mold growth

dichlorophene

120

colorless liquid used as a solvent

diethanol amine

121

colorless oily liquid used as a solvent

diethyl formamide

122

clear liquid with fruit like odor. Sometimes used as a perfuming agent.used in sealing, clearing out layers & cavity fluids – true seal.

ethyl acetate

123

used as anticoagulant in pre-injection or with co-injection chemicals as buffer.

EDTA (Sodium salt)

124

in free state gas, soluble in water, used as preservative

formaldehyde

125

colorless liquid used as solvent and bleaching agent. Acidic when less than pH 7

formic acid

126

The most formaldehyde that can be dissolved in water?

37% by weight and 40% by volume in 100 milliliters of water.

127

means (ant) in Latin active ingredient in fire ant bites and bee stingssubstance formed in the decomposition of formaldehyde

formic

128

one of two supplementary germicides. a far superior disinfectant than formaldehyde.

glutaraldehyde

129

has 5 carbon atoms, there is no standard for it.

glutaraldehyde

130

Dihydroxy alcohols...chemicals used as humectants (moisture retainers) in embalming fluids.active ingredient in anti-freeze

glycols

131

alcohols who have 2 OH groups used as humectants in ethylene glycols – Xerex, Prestone, Peak (antifreeze).

glycols

132

chemical name for hypochlorites

sodium hypochlorite

133

household name for hypochlorites

bleach

134

never clean a cavity fluid using undiluted bleach, because it will cause ______________.Which is a harmful orange colored gas.

phosgene

135

substance used as a propellant in aerosol spray products ex: Lysol

isobutane

136

bleach used to clean the prep room should be diluted with ____________. ______ part bleach ___________ part water.

WaterOneNine

137

colorless liquid similar to acetone that is used as solvent

methyl ethyl ketone

138

used to clean cosmetic brushes

mineral spirits

139

common names for mineral spirits....

turpentine and paint thinner

140

injected to help rebuild where tissue has been lost.

nitrocellulose

141

The chemical name for nitrocellulose.....

tissue builder

142

colorless liquid used as an insecticide chemical, many embalming manufactures add to preservative powders.

orthodichlorobenzene

143

colorless solid used as a stripping agent. pH below 7 (acidic)

oxalic acid

144

used as mold preventative agent.

paradichlorobenzene – Common name is moth balls &

145

white solid form of formaldehyde...major preservative used in preservative powders

paraformaldehyde

146

Common name for paradichlorobenzene is

moth balls

147

two primary uses in prep-room is as a cauterizing agent (prevents leakage) or bleaching agent. Do it as injection not a cavity pack where applied to skin. It is rust in color

phenol/phenolic compounds

148

Most prep-rooms keep this in solid granular powder form, to create a cast of a broken area for restorative work.Primary hardening agent of hardening compound.

plaster of paris

149

used as a source of power

propane

150

common name for propane is....

bbq gas

151

flesh colored or white color drying powder / finishing powder

Quartz/Talc

152

quartz/talc is also known as.....

finishing powder

153

used for supplementary germicide

quaternary ammonium compounds Brand names: Benzalkonium Zephrian Chloride

154

colorless liquid used as solvent and in liquid cosmetics.

toluene `

155

TNT stands for...

Tri nitro toluene

156

A chemical in powder form; typically used for surface embalming of remains.Will help to control maggots and vermin. Usually has a high concentration of preservative - ParaformaldehydeThey do not have the absorbent and drying qualities.

PRESERVATIVE POWDERS

157

Latin means-ant

formic

158

disinfectant

paraformaldehye

159

white in color, used in antipersprents dehydrating agent

alum