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Flashcards in Microbiology Final Deck (91):
1

ability to exist in more than one form

dimorphism

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originally placed in the plant family. Smallest form of animal life - not plant life. A group of diverse and wide spread unicellular and multicellular organism (dimorphism). That lack chlorophyll and usually bear spores and appear filamentous.

Fungi (fungus)

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(study of fungi) to include yeast or mole.

Mycology

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Yeast is...

unicellular

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Mold is...

multicellular

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superficial fungal infections seen on the skin.

Dermatomycosis

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Dermatomycosis causes what superficial infections of the skin?

ringworm (scalp) jock itch (genitalia)athlete’s foot (toes). most common

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All of these 3 can cause these 3 fungal infections (jock itch, ringworm, athlete's foot):

1. Microsporum species2. Trichophyton species3. Epidermophyton species

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Super infection (can be found within the body). You look at the genus name to determine the infection that it causes.

Systemic fungal infection

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List the 5 Systemic fungal infections

1. Coccidioides immitis 2. Histoplasma capsulatum3. Candida albicans4. Cryptococcus neoformans5. Pneumocystis jiroveci

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causes coccidioidomycosis found in the lungs - a systemic fungal infection in man, transmitted through the air spots on the lungs, not to confuse with TB.

Coccidioides immitis

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cause histoplasmosis (respiratory fungal infection).

Histoplasma capsulatum

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causes candidiasis (thrush) vaginal thrush - a yeast infection

Candida albicans

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causes crytococcosis, caused by pigeon droppings.

Cryptococcus neoformans

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causes pneumocystis pneumonia (pcp).

Pneumocystis jiroveci

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the smallest form of animal life

Protozoa

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4 types of Protozoa

1. Entamoeba histolytica 2. Plasmodium malariae 3. Toxoplasma gondii 4. Giardia lamblia

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causes amoebiasis (amebic dysentery in the intestine).

Entamoeba histolytica

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causes malaria which causes red blood cells destruction. Primary host is the monkey being bitten by the anopheles mosquito and the mosquito infecting man. Mode of transmission- indirect animal to person.

Plasmodium malariae

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causes toxoplasmosis and affects the central nervous system. This can be transmitted by cats. (CNS)

Toxoplasma gondii

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causes giardiasis (traveler’s diarrhea)

Giardia lamblia

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study of viruses

Virology

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Characteristics of viruses

1. Smallest microorganism known to man that cannot be seen with the ordinary compound light microscope.2. Reproduce by replication.3. Contains either a SINGLE STRAND of DNA or RNA genetic structure, not both.4. Strict intracellular parasites and must obtain their food from living organic matter.5. Cannot be grown in a laboratory setting.6. Antibiotics have NO effect on them.

24

Important viral diseases by anatomical site

DermatropicPneumotropicNeurotropic central nervous system ViscerotropicImmunological viruses

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characterized by the presence of a skin Rash

Dermatropic

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8 Types of Dermatropic viruses

1. Smallpox (Variola)2. Measles (Rubeola)3. German measles (Rubella)4. Chicken pox (Varicella)5. Shingles (Varicella zoster)6. Herpes simplex I7. Herpes simplex II8. HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

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most infectious and highest mortality rate (100% death) only historically significant and has been eliminated.

Smallpox (Variola)

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10 day (regular), childhood infection. Koplik spots lesions inside the cheeks used to detect it.

Measles (Rubeola) (Also known as hard measles)

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3 day measles not as severe for adults; however, can be spread placentally, leading to birth defects in the child or still birth. It has teratogen – the virus affinity for developing fetal tissue.

German measles (Rubella)

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1st infection childhood infection can leave scars. 2nd infection can lead to shingles.

Chicken pox (Varicella)

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2nd infection of chicken pox (Varicella) because true antibodies were not formed when contacting chicken pox. Painful infection follows the nerve endings, usually on back. To get shingles, you first have to be exposed to chickenpox; shingles are the second infection of the virus vircella.

Shingles (Varicella zoster)

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found above the waist and causes cold sores and fever blisters.

Herpes simplex I

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-found below the waist and is a sexually transmitted disease. Uterine cancer found in high correlation in women with this.

Herpes Simplex II

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genital warts; dysplasia (benign tumor) pollups

HPV- Human Papilloma Virus

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Enter the body through the upper respiratory tract (URI). These affect the ears, nose and throat (ENT). Three (3) basic strains: ABC, named for geographic location - Asia, Hong Kong, and Russia.

Pneumotropic

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3 Types of Pneumotropic viruses

1. Influenza - flu 2. Common Cold 3. Hantavirus - HPS

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One of the few pandemic diseases.Most famous: 1918 - 1919 - 20 million deaths.

Influenza - flu

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Rhinovirus, one of the methods to see if genetic stuff is present.. Most common occurring ailment in humans. RNA about 150 different strains.

Common Cold - Acute Coryza

39

Causes a respiratory infection in man, mystery disease in the four corner region of the USA.

Hantavirus - HPS (Hanta virus pulmonary syndrome)

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brain and spinal cord.

Neurotropic central nervous system (CNS)

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4 types of Neurotropic central nervous system viruses?

1.Poliomyelitis (Polio)2.Encephalitis 3.Rabies 4.Creutrfeidt Jakob (CJ)

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infantile paralysis attacks and causes inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

Poliomyelitis - polio (3 types of viruses-no cross immunity)

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-inflammation of the brain largest of the zoonotic infections - primarily from migratory birds (herron, etc.) or horses (equine).

Encephalitis

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3 TYPES OF Encephalitis

WEE - Western equine encephalitisEEE - Eastern equine encephalitisSLE - Saint Louis encephalitis

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The zoonotic infection primarily transmitted only by the culex mosquito. Mosquito does not suffer from encephalitis, indirect animal to person via blood of mosquito.

Encephalitis

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hydrophobia (fear of water) - once diagnosed, it is 100% mortality rate. Note: fear of water but the fear of swallowing because of the pain of swallowing.

Rabies

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2 Forms of Rabies

1. Furious (“Old Yellow,” Cujo) - foaming at mouth. 2. Dumb - no external signs.

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Portal of Entry & Exit of Rabies

Portal of entry: Skin by bite.Portal of exit: Saliva.

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(“Old Yellow,” Cujio) - foaming at mouth.

Furious Rabies

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No external signs of rabies

Dumb Rabies

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Only positive diagnosis of Rabies...

negri bodies - seen in brain tissue 4 hours after death.

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If rabid, animal will die___________

before person bitten - usually within 10 days.

53

caused by a prior, severe; daily dementia - extremely contagious.

Creutrfeidt Jakob (CJ)

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target organ, causes larger or swelling of the organ.

Viscerotropic

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4 types of Viscerotropic

1. Hepatitis 2.Infectious mononucleosis3. Epidemic parotitis 4.Cytomegalovirus (CID)

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attacks the liver, Occupational disease.

Hepatitis

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3 types of Hepatitis (All 3 are caused by a VIRUS)

i) Hepatitis A ii) Hepatitis B iii) Hepatitis C

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A short incubation period of 30 days. Could recover.

Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)

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causes long term chronic liver damage. Transmitted by blood. Incubation period of 6 months. Causes more damage.Occupational disease

Hepatitis B (serum hepatitis)

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Can be obtained in post transfusion form.

Hepatitis C (non A, non B hepatitis)

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kissing disease - caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Six to eight weeks to recover. Target organ – spleen enlargement.

Infectious mononucleosis -(mono)

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also linked to rare form of cancer called Burkett’s lymphoma.

Epstein-Barr virus

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a childhood infection. Target organ: parotid salivary glands (the largest). In severe cases...could lead to sterility in men.

Epidemic parotitis - (mumps)

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Inclusion disease. Risk for transplant recipients – often mistaken for infectious mononucleosis; thus, spleen enlargement. Commonly called salivary gland virus.

Cytomegalovirus - (CID) cyomegalo

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attacks the immune system.

Immunological viruses

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three strains attacks the human T cells lymphocyte virus. Renamed Aids after the infection it causes. Acquired immune deficiency.

HTLV (Human T-Cells Lymphocyte Virus)

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3 types of viruses caused by HTLV

HIV IHIV IIARC (AIDS RELATED COMPLEX)

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a purple blotch that appears on aid’s victims. This is a secondary infection in aids patients.

Kaposi's Sarcoma

69

causes aspergillosis - an external ear infection.

Aspergillus species

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found in peanut butter, soil, in which peanuts grow could be the environment for ASPERGILLOSIS to live

Alflatoxins

71

found in the lungsit is a systemic fungal infection in man and is transmitted through the air spots on the lungs, not to confuse with TB

COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

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Respiratory fungal infection

histoplasmosis

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thrush (vaginal thrush)-yeast infection

candidiasis

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caused by pigeon droppings

crytococcosis

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PCP stands for

pneumocystis pneumonia

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amebic dysentery in the intestine

amoebiasis

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causes red blood cell destruction

malaria

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Primary host of malaria is the __________ being bitten by the __________________ and then the __________ infects man.

monkeyanopheles mosquitomosquito

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affects the central nervous system and can be transmitted by cats

toxoplasmosis

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also known as traveler's diarrhea

giardiasis

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viruses reproduce by________

replication

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Do antibiotics have and effect on viruses?

NO

83

Can viruses be grown in a laboratory?

NO

84

Smallpox is also known as...

Variola

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Measles is also known as...

Rubeola

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German Measles is also known as

Rubella

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Chicken pox is also known as...

Varicella

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Shingles is also known as...

Varicella zoster

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3rd and final stage of FULL BLOWN AIDS

ARC

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What does ARC stand for?

Aids Related Complex

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Viruses are ________ parasites and must obtain their food from ______________________.

Strict intracellularLiving organic matter