Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Pathology Test 1 Deck (121):
Study of disease
any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. Local disease and genetic diseases can occur.
was the leading cause of death in the early 1900’s
the leading cause of death TODAY
CVD- Cardiovascular Disease
Another name for CAUSE
The cause of disease is divided into what 2 categories?
Immediate (exciting) &Predisposing
The beginning of disease. The manner in which a particular disease develops.
3 parts of disease that we study
1. Cause (Etiology) 2. Pathogenesis 3. Changes and final effects brought about in the body.
Study of general disease processes, such as inflammation, degeneration, necrosis (localized area of dead tissue in a living body), repair (i.e.: scar tissue), etc.
The body's total response to any injury
Study of disease in relation to a particular organ or the organs system. Ie., disease of the digestive track.
5 Divisions of Pathology
1. Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy) 2. Surgical Pathology3. Clinical Pathology 4. Medico - Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) 5. Physiological Pathology
The study of the structure of the human body as affected by disease.
Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)
localized area of dead tissue in a living body
Study of disease by means of biopsies.
The study of disease by means of:body secretions (useful substances produced within the body), body excretions (waste substances rid from the body), & other body fluids.
Legal Pathology (forensic pathology) the study of disease, death, and injuries with medical/legal potential.
2 methods to study Pathological Anatomy (Morbid Anatomy)
1.) Gross Inspection 2.) Histopathology
See changes of the structure of the body with the unaided eye.
A study of the structure of the cell as affected by disease, by means of microscope. Disease at cellular levels.
The study of the functions of the body as affected by disease.
A study of disease by samples of tissue removed surgically from a living person.
useful substances produced within the body
waste products that are rid from the body
The study of deaths and injuries of medical and legal significance
The study of the function of the human body as affected by disease.
Medico-Legal Pathology is also known as...
Importance of autopsy
1. Confirm medical diagnosis2. Amplify or reject the clinical diagnosis3. Advancement of medical knowledge 4. Medico-legal cases5. Medical statistics
Autopsy is also known as...
necropsy or postmortem exam
Differences between Coroner vs. Medical Examiner
1. Determination of jurisdiction (county where death occurred)2. Qualifications 3. Inquest
a formal legal proceeding into the events and circumstances surrounding a particular death.
Coroner is a carry over from the.....
English common law system
Inquest are needed in cases of....
unknown deaths ordeaths caused by violence
Elected county officer who investigates and holds inquests over unknown deaths or deaths caused by violence.
Appointed...must have gone to school (MD) works with the police officers; works under coroner.
Texas does NOT use the term__________________, but has _______________ in those counties not large enough to have a ME's office.
Coroner Justice of the Peace (J.P.)
Difference with ordinary clinical autopsy (relation to clinical findings and diagnosis) vs. forensic autopsy. Forensic Autopsy will provide...
A. Absolute identification of the body.B. A description of the body and scene.C. A description of the clothingD. An unrestricted autopsy (prevention of future legal actions) a complete autopsy.
Types of Unrestricted autopsy
Biochemical Microbiological scans Radiological scans
Primary need of a forensic autopsy is to determine...
cause of death
A minimum of ___________ must be listed on a death certificate.
One cause of death
Three types or parts of death
the thing responsible for death at the time of the terminal event (peritonitis)
Immediate cause of death
the thing prior to and leading up to the terminal event (stab wounds)
basic cause of death
the thing involved in but not causing the terminal event (leukemia) persons with leukemia have less blood clotting ability.
contributory cause of death
God only knows
Failure to thrive means
infant not sucking on breast
dead in the saddle
the circumstances surrounding a particular death
manner of death
Types of Mannerrs of death
1. Natural 2. Homicide3. Suicide4. Accident5. Unexplained (SIDS)6. Undetermined (decomposed)
An explanation of the sequence of events leading up to the death.
mechanism of death
recover and preserve this_____________
any abnormal condition which impairs the normal functioning of the body. It can affect the entire body or only one part of the body.
Definition of disease
presence of microorganisms in or on the body.
The doctrine of cellular pathology was written by who? He is considered the father of pathology.
What does the doctrine of cellular pathology state?
“Just like the cell is the structural and functional unit of life. The cell is also the structural and functional unit of disease.”
any disease of impaired function without change in structure. i.e. mental illness, color blindness.
any disease in which definite structural changes accompany it.
Any structural or functional change due to disease.
The identification of a specific disease.
Any disease in which the fever accompanying it is either excessively high and or lasts a prolonged period of time. Ex: Rickettsia infections- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - 107 15 - 20 days (2-3 weeks).
Disease state which occur at the same time or concurrently with another disease. Often times they are infectious in nature.
Alcohol, steroids, poisoning, the exposure of the body to poisonous substances.
Disease states which occur on second or subsequent exposure to the same allergen.
A forecast of the outcome of a particular disease.
Subjective manifestation of a disease. They accompany the disease but are not measurable. Pain, headache.
Objective manifestation of a disease. These are measurable. Vital signs, blood pressure, breathing.
Any disease caused by a microorganism.
Any disease that occurs every now and then.
Any disease that turns into a worldwide epidemic, flu.
A disease that attacks a large number of people in a short period of time, i.e. chicken pox.
Any disease that is continuously present i.e. common cold.
A set of both signs and symptoms accompanying a disease, i.e. Down’s syndrome (mongolism) SIDS.
A sudden increase in the severity of a disease. “The patient has made a turn for the worse.” Conditions of patients are rated; good, fair, critical, grave condition. If a patient goes from fair to critical condition
Temporary absence of a particular disease. ie: Cancer
Any disease transmitted genetically - through the genes, i.e. hemophilia, dwarfism.
Any disease caused by dietary or metabolic deficiency, i.e. diabetes mellitus scurvy (lack of vitamin C) Goiter (lack of iodine).
Any disease with slow on set and long duration. ex: Carcinoma (cancer). Gout
Any disease present at birth. Does not have to be life threatening, i.e. cleft palate, polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal).
Any disease obtained after birth.
Any disease that reappears now and then, fever blisters, cold sores.
Any disease of unknown origin or cause. Essential hypertension.
Any disease in which a person’s occupation or profession makes them more susceptible to develop a particular disease. Hepatitis B, scrotal cancer, (chimney sweeps) anthrocosis (black lung disease) silicosis (sandblasting).
Any disease of sudden onset and short duration. ex: MI
the study of the causes of disease
The divisions of the causes of disease
predisposing conditions exciting (immediate causes)
conditions that make a person more susceptible or inclined to develop a particular disease.ex: Age (MS/Meningitis-children's disease) (Alzheimer's disease-elderly) (Sarcoma vs. Carcinoma-most 40-65) Sex (Prostate cancer-male) (Uterine & Ovarian cancer-female) (Gallbladder attack-mostly in women) Nutrition (Kwashiokor - protein deficiency) Race (Sickle cell anemia-Blacks) (TB-less in Eskimos) Occupation (Hepatitis B-Embalmers) (Scrotal cancer- chimney sweeps)
Any cause of disease that has established a cause/effect relationship
Exciting (immediate) causes
coal miners disease...black lung diseaseIt is a type of occupational disease
Hepatitis B is what type of disease?
Scrotal cancer is commonly a Recurrent Disease...TRUE OR FALSE?
FALSE...it is commonly an occupational disease
any condition or disease induced/caused by treatment of a physician or medical personnel ex: leaving a pair of forceps in the body after surgery
number of cases reported of a specific illness or disease in a given population.
MMWR stands for.....It is one of the most common reports that the morbidity rate of illnesses or diseases are posted in.
mortality and morbidity weekly report
Number of deaths reported in a given population for a specific period of time.
Mortality Rate (Death Rate)
Carcinoma is an example of what type of disease?
diabetes mellitus(lack of insulin) & scurvy (lack of vitamin C) is an example of what type of disease?
A common cold is a ______________ disease.
dwarfism is what type of disease?
essential hypertension is what type of disease?
polydactylism (more digits on hand or feet than normal) is a ______________ disease.
A hereditary disease that is also known as the bleeder’s disease. It is mostly present in male offspring; is the absence of an essential clotting factor- Factor 8)
The flu can be which two types of diseases?
Endemic & epidemic
Allergies are also known as...
A death resulting from immediate severe allergic reaction.
Anaphylaxis is also known as...
also known as frequency. Number of incidents...how frequently an incident occurs.
Prevalence- Most commonly used as “how prevalent”
Factors in predisposing conditions
Age Sex Nutrition Race Occupation
any type of wound or injury
disease due to dietary or metabolism in the systemex: albinisim
not seen on first exposure. Seen on second or third exposure
other factors of predisposing conditions
fatigue, general living conditions, plague, alcoholism, heredity, emotion, etc.
mongolism (down's syndrome), hemophilia, diabetes, dwarfism are examples of...
foreign protein that triggers production of an incomplete antibody
extremes of temperature-cold or heat. Radiation is also an example of this...
parasites, microorganisms are examples of...
chemicals that are either immediately or eventually toxic or poisonous to the body.chemical reactions-has a cause and effect. Chemicals which induce a change in the human body.
types of death with medico-legal potential
1. injury or death by violence2. sudden and/or unexpected death3. environmental deaths4. health, welfare, & safety5. medical litigation
albinism is an example of what disease?