3rd Quarter Restorative Art ALL CARDS Flashcards Preview

MAKE YOUR OWN CARDS!!!! :) > 3rd Quarter Restorative Art ALL CARDS > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3rd Quarter Restorative Art ALL CARDS Deck (425):
1

requires a long period of time, is extensive, or requires technical skill

major restoration

2

types of major restorations

full head of hair
deep wound preparation and care of deep lacerations
repair or reconstruction of multiple fractures
buck-teeth (dental prognathism)
3rd degree burns

3

the care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color

restorative art

4

time-table of RA treatment layout

Pre-embalming
Concurrent Embalming
Post Embalming

5

These are examples of what type of treatment?Setting featuresSuturing clean cuts, skin flaps, positioning skin, muscle, features, etc.Resetting fracturesPuncture blistersSupport surface tissuesMinor buck teeth issues

Pre-Embalming Treatments

6

Buck teeth are also called...

dental prognathism

7

These are examples of what type of treatment?Internal (active) dyeMaintaining feature corrections/alignmentLimiting swelling

Concurrent Embalming Treatments

8

These are examples of what type of treatment?
Remove scabs
Excise diseased or mutilated tissues
Suture incisions, lacerations
Reduce swellings (it has already occurred)
Reduce tissue swelling (using gravity, compress- ace bandage, channeling-small incisions, electric spatula,Be sure to use large amounts of massage cream to protect the skin

Deep wound preparation and waxing
Feature modeling
Bleaching
Masking discolorations
External coloring and cosmetics (not always to cover something)
Correct buck-teeth
Attach dismembered parts
Hair replacement

Post Embalming Treatments

9

lack of symmetry or proportiondifferences in paired features

asymmetry

10

it is natural to be ________

asymetrical

11

correspondence in size, shape, and relative position of parts that are on opposite sides of the face.

symmetry

12

anterior view of the face or features

front aspect

13

side view of the human head

profile view

14

in reference to a photograph; a view that reveals the fullness of the cheeks

three-quarter view

15

What should the restorative artist not conceal?

Scars
Moles
Birthmarks
Warts

16

external shape; a mold for casting; produce a certain shape; to constitute existing elementsrefers to the shape of a surface structure, which is recognized by its outline and surface movement.

Form

17

the process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to temporarily inhibit organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance.

embalming

18

dissimilarities existing in the two sides or halves of an object.

Bilateral differences

19

the bilateral view; an inferior or superior viewpoint which permits the comparison of the two sides or halves of an object or facial feature.

Bilateral silhouette

20

a visual sensation perceived by the eye and the mind due to the activity and vibration of light

color

21

hollow space or area

cavity

22

two sides

bilateral

23

The body is erect, facing the observer, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs pointed away from body.

anatomical position

24

a prominence or projection of a bone

eminence

25

a state or degree of being deep

depth

26

near to the mid-line; opposite of lateral direction

medial

27

a position or direction away from mid-line; to the side

lateral

28

more elevated in place or position; higher; upper; anatomically towards the head

superior

29

beneath; lower in plane or position; the under surface of an organ or indicating a structure below another structure; toward the feet

inferior

30

the act of throwing forward; a part extending beyond the level of its surroundings

projection

31

a type of surface formed by the withdrawal of a part from its normal position

recession

32

exhibiting a depressed or hollow surface; a concavity

concave

33

boundaries or edges

margins

34

slanting; neither horizontal nor perpendicular

oblique

35

curved evenly; resembling a segment of the outer edge of a sphere

convex

36

the study of the structures and surface markings of the face and features

physiognomy

37

the injection of special creams or liquids into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle to restore natural contour

hypodermic tissue building

38

a substance used to elevate sunken (emaciated) tissues to normal level

tissue builder

39

the rounded projection on the inferior portion of the temporal bones just posterior to the lobe of the ear

mastoid process

40

a hollow or concave region

depression

41

the state or condition of being thrust forward or projecting

protrusion

42

the geometric shape of the human skull

oval

43

an electrically heated blade used to dry moist tissues, reduce swollen tissues, and restore contour to natural form

electric spatula

44

the topmost part of the head

crown

45

Crown is also known as...

vertex

46

weight applied to a surface

external pressure

47

lowest part of the back and base of the cranium, forming a cradle for the brain

occipital bone

48

the prominence at the center of the external surface of the occipital bone.

occipital protuberance

49

two bones that form the roof and part of the sides of the skull

parietal bones

50

the rounded peak of the external convexity of the parietal bones; determines the widest part of the cranium

parietal eminence

51

inferior portion of the sides and base of the cranium, inferior to the parietal bones and anterior to the occipital bone

temporal bones

52

the concave surface of the head overlying the temporal bone

temporal cavity

53

the vertical surface of the temporal bone

squama

54

How is the widest part of the cranium measured?

From one parietal eminence to another

55

a natural body opening or canal

meatus

56

the most common characteristics of each feature; typical, common, average

Norm

57

meaning...after death

postmortem

58

Anatomical structures for locating the modeled ear? What are they? Where are they located?

external auditory meatus
zygomatic arch
mandibular fossa
mastoid process

59

a single bony prominence of the frontal bone located between the superciliary arches in the inferior part of the frontal bone above the root of the nose

glabella

60

the anterior third of the cranium, forming the forehead and the anterior portion of the roof of the skull

frontal bone

61

paired, rounded, un-margined prominences of the frontal bone found approximately one inch beneath the normal hairline

frontal eminences

62

the inferior part of the forehead just superior to the median ends of the eyebrows.

superciliary arches

63

the superior rim of the eye sockets

supraorbital margins

64

- to observe the relative locations and arrangements of internal parts, it is necessary to cut or section the body along various planes.

Body Planes

65

a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions. If the division is into two equal halves, it is called median or mid-sagittal

Median (sagittal) plane

66

divides the body into superior and inferior sections

Horizontal (transverse) plane

67

divides the body into anterior and posterior sections

Frontal (coronal) plane

68

inferior to the mandibular fossaear passage...most noticeable

external auditor meatus

69

anterior to the external auditory meatus

mandibular fossa

70

posterior to the lobe of the ear most inferior portion of the temporal bone

mastoid process

71

fatty 1/3 portion of the ear

ear lobe

72

where does the sternoclediomastoid muscle attach?

Mastoid process

73

causes bruising and swelling to the eyes

squama

74

Separation of the head from the body

decapitation

75

the trunk of a body

torso

76

when decapitated it the head should be embalmed...

separately from the trunk

77

the decapitated head can be injected using the....

common carotid arteries if in tact

78

if the common carotid arteries are destroyed in a decapitation how should injection be made?

External & Internal Carotid Arteries or...
External Maxillary arteries

79

other methods of decapitated head preservation...

hypodermic injectionsurface compresses

80

the torso from decapitation can be injected using the ....

common carotid or axillary arteries

81

Use _____ plastic or wood splints (dowels) or _________ rods that are approximately ___ -____ inches long that are _______________ to reattach the head

3
metal
8
12
sharpened

82

One rod is inserted into the ___________

spinal canal of the vertebrae

83

The additional 2 rods are inserted into the muscles on both sides of the __________ and __________

esophagus
trachea

84

suture the muscles and tissue around the _____________________________ of the neck

entire circumference

85

use ______________ or _______________to fill in for missing tissue of neck

mortuary mastic or cotton & sealer

86

posterior process of the ramus of the mandible...articulates the anterior to the external auditory meatus

mandibular fossa

87

the care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color

restorative art

88

refers to the shape of a surface structure which is recognized by its outline and surface movement

form

89

the basic form of the nose is shaped how?

pyramid shape

90

the basic form of an ear is shaped how?

wedged

91

Form involves the following dimensions...

Length
width
projection

92

refers to those rays of light reflected from the surface

color

93

highlights and shadows affect

appearance of color

94

one thing to do to look at highlights and shadows is to look at it in....

black and white

95

unless at least _________ of the facial structures remain intact, no restoration is ordinarily attempted, because it may resemble a __________. This is called the ________ rule. (mayer)

two-thirds
wax replica
2/3

96

the ________ may be violated in some cases.

2/3 rule

97

not all restorative art involves________

wax

98

types of restorative art without wax

1. external cosmetics
2. internally (restorative chemicals w/ ACTIVE dyes)

99

______________is good to be included with permission to embalm

permission to restore

100

when preparing a wound using wax it must _________

be firm & dry

101

wounds must be ________ because you will be placing a substance and the surrounding structure should not ______

firm
move

102

wounds should be ______because one component of wax is ________

dry
petroleum (oil)

103

dismembered parts should ALWAYS be attached _________________.

after embalming

104

study of the structures and surface markings of the face and featuresa topography of the face

physiognomy

105

lack of symmetry or proportiondifferences in paired features

asymmetry

106

it is natural to be ________

asymetrical

107

the most common characteristic of each part of a feature (or face)

norm

108

one eye width is the same as_______

width of the nose

109

anthropological classification (pg. 12)

European
Asiatic
African

110

first people to practice any type of RA

egyptians

111

practice of reading faces
Plato & Aristotle all wrote about the subject of facial meanings

Chinese & mediterranean

112

practice of reading faces originated in______

China

113

This era took low priority; little effort to restore

middle ages to early 19th century

114

restoration began at the end of ___________

the Civil War (civil war era)

115

done on their own initiativeno textbooksno instruction, cosmetics or instrumentstrial & error

Those that are considered pioneers in RA

116

early attempts and problems with RA

Plastic surgery (skin transplant)
Plaster of paris
Clay & putty
SoapWaxes

117

problems with skin transplant

skin dehydrated discoloration

118

problems with plaster of paris

draws moisture from surrounding tissues

119

problems with clay & putty

too dark & oily
difficult to hide w/cosmetics

120

finally manufactures produced a practical substance to perform RA.influence of mortuary science schools in 1920's

Waxes

121

body erect with arms at the sides and palms forward

anatomical position

122

front (before)

anterior

123

toward back

posterior

124

top

superior

125

beneath (lower)

inferior

126

toward midline

medial line

127

toward sides (away from median line)

lateral

128

body planes are located on page

14

129

horizontal plane also called

transverse plane

130

frontal plane also called

coronal plane

131

median (medial) plane also calleddivides into right and left

sagittal plane

132

state of being deep

depth

133

hollow or shallow area

depression

134

area that sticks outState or condition of being thrust forward or projecting

protrusion

135

hollow depressed area

concave

136

outer segment of a circle

convex

137

line which is neither horizontal or verticalSlope; deviation from the horizontal or vertical; oblique

inclination

138

relating to, or having two sides

bilateral

139

dissimilarities noted when looking at two sides

bilateral differences

140

bilateral view of a person's silhouette

bilateral silhouette

141

a view of a person from the front

frontal aspect

142

a view of a person from the side

profile

143

a view of a person that is slightly turned

3 quarter view

144

additional terminology needed

frontal (anterior view)
margins (boundaries or edges)
oblique (slanting; neither horizontal nor perpendicular)
pyramid recession (recessed; withdraw from normal position)
sunken (commonly the eyes)
vertex (crown or topmost part)

145

requires a long period of time, is extensive, or requires technical skill

major restoration

146

The funeral home can charge the family for RA if_____________

it is on the general price list/contract

147

Charging the family for RA is ____________.

up to the funeral home...not required

148

When discussing RA with a family be aware of___________

promises/time lines

149

Always make sure that the family has __________

clarity

150

requires a minimum of effort, skill or time to complete

minor restoration

151

types of minor restorations

tissue building (filler)
waxing (lips, razor burn, sutures, etc.)
bleaching/concealing discolorations
removal of fever blisters
minor hair replacement (parts of eyebrow, eyelash, etc.)
reducing swelling (non-surgical)

152

distinguishing characteristics not to be altered or concealed normally....

moles
warts
scars
birthmarks

153

note....

READ AND STUDY TERMS IN CHAPTERS 1 & 2

154

Bones of the head are divided into....

bones of the cranium
bones of the face

155

geometric form of the "normal skull"

oval

156

the geometric from of the skull is determined from what views?

frontal & above

157

form varies from______________

person to person

158

why does form vary?

because of differences in width & length

159

note....

see page 12 for skull comparison of male, female, and infant

160

effects of tooth loss and

aging

161

bones of the external cranium

frontal (1)
occipital (1)
parietal (2)
temporal (2)

162

which bones are paired bones of the cranium

parietal
temporal

163

anterior third of the cranium

frontal bone

164

surfaces of the frontal bone

1. vertical surface (forehead)
2. horizontal surface (crown)

165

eminences of the frontal bone

1. frontal eminence (2)
2. supraorbital margin (2)
3. superciliary arch (2) "eyebrow"
4. glabella

166

Rounded prominences on either side of the median line of the frontal bone. May be indistinct at times (unrecognizable) or continuous.

frontal eminence

167

superior rim of the eye sockets (2)

supraorbital margin

168

the supraorbital margin lies _________ regarding the superciliary arch.

inferior

169

on some individuals the supraorbital margin will be _________

prominent
ex: Tommy Lee Jones

170

lies in the inferior part of the forehead just superior the medial ends of the eyebrows (the thicker part of an arched eyebrow)

superciliary arch

171

superciliary arch is normally more prominent in people with ___________

receding foreheads

172

Located between the superciliary arch. Located in the inferior part of the frontal bone. Considered to be at the root of the nose. (where a uni-brow grows)

glabella

173

when the glabella is very prominent it will make the root of the nose look very _______________

deep

174

the lowest part of the back and the base of the cranium. Forms a cradle for the brain.

occipital bone

175

distinctive features of the occipital bone

occipital protuberance
foramen magnum

176

located at the center of the external surface of the occipital bone

occipital protuberance

177

opening in the occipital bone, the spinal cord passes thru it

foramen magnum

178

superior portion of the sides and the posterior 2/3 of the cranium

parietal bones

179

parietal eminences

convexity of the parietal bone

180

a measurement of one parietal eminence to another gives you the ______________________.

widest part of the cranium

181

where are the parietal eminences located?

above posterior border of the ears.

182

inferior portion of the sides and the base of the cranium

temporal bone

183

concave surface of the head overlying the temporal bone.

temporal cavity

184

vertical portion of the temporal bone and is fairly thin (almost translucent) Scale like

squama

185

characteristics of the squama

thin almost translucent scale like

186

there are _______ anatomical structures of the temporal bone. Used for locating the modeled ear.

4

187

What are the anatomical structures of the temporal bones used to locate the modeled ear?

1. external auditory meatus
2. zygomatic arch
3. mandibular fossa
4. mastoid process

188

ear passage see glossary

external auditory meatus

189

extension of the zygomatic bonedivides the length of the ear in halfsee glossary

zygomatic arch

190

measurement of one zygomatic arch to the other gives you the.....

widest part of the face

191

where the condyle of the mandible articulates is anterior to the external auditor meatus

mandibular fossa

192

rounded portion most inferior portion of the temporal boneis posterior to the lobe of the ear (fatty inferior one third portion of the ear)sternoclydomastoid muscle attaches here

mastoid process

193

Character lines, wrinkles, grooves, cords of the neck, and dimples of the face

facial markings

194

facial markings in its purest form are caused by...

muscles

195

factors responsible for facial markings

1. Age
2. Heredity
3. Environment
4. Muscle striation & action
5. Position of the body
6. Condition of the body

196

rapid weight gain

corpulence

197

a hollow or shallow concave area in a surface

depression

198

(wrinkle) a crevice in the skin accompanied by adjacent elevations

furrow

199

an elongated depression in a relatively level plane or surface

groove

200

elongated prominence adjoining a surface

fold

201

a prominence or projections of a bone

eminence

202

shallow depressions located on the cheek or chin in a rounded or vertical form

dimple

203

a furrow, wrinkle, or groove

sulcus

204

classification of facial markings

natural acquired

205

those markings present at birth

natural facial markings

206

those markings developed throughout a lifetime

acquired facial markings

207

neither natural nor acquired facial markings which occur on both sides of the face are truly symmetrical

asymmetry of facial markings

208

the termination of all facial markings is

indefinite

209

physiognomy of natural facial markings

1. philtrum
2. nasolabial fold
3. nasal sulcus
4. oblique palpebral sulcus
5. angulus oris eminence
6. angulus oris sulcus
7. labial mental sulcus
8. submental suclus
9. dimbles

210

vertical groove on superior liplocated medially on the superior lipextends from the columna nasi & the margin of the red lip (superior etigment)forms an irregular parenthetical curve

philtrum

211

the greatest depth of the philtrum corresponds to...

its widest part

212

the philtrum can become __________ in very ______________________

obscuredold age

213

glossary

nasolabial fold

214

linear outline of the nasolabial fold

1. curved
2. straight
3. sinuous (backward S)

215

furrow is the same as...

wrinkle

216

physiognomy of acquired facial markings

1. nasolabial sulcus
2. transverse frontal sulci
3. interciliary sulci
4. optic facial sulci
5. superior palpebral sulcus
6. inferior palpebral sulcus
7. bucco-facial sulcus
8. mandible sulcus
9. labial sulci
10. platysmal sulci
11. cords of the neck

217

factors responsible for facial markings concerning conditions of the body...

1. Rapid weight loss
2. Pathological condition
3. Corpulence
4. Trauma

218

called an angular areaalong the posterior margin of the wing of the nose and the nasolabial fold.

nasal sulcus

219

at an angle...shallow curving groove below the medial corner of the eyelids.

oblique palpebral sulcus

220

revisit definition for...this is essential to facial expressionhard to see because it doesn't have definite borders

angulus oris eminence

221

the elevation is formed by the combined insertions of the...

1. zygomatic muscles
2. buccinator muscle
3. triangularis muscle

222

this accompanies the angulus oris eminence...

angulus oris sulcus

223

in youth the angulus oris sulcus tends to be...

triangular

224

the junction of the lower integementary lip and the superior border of the chinmay appear as a furrow...even in a child

labiomental sulcus

225

the highest point of the labiomental sulcus is...

along the midline

226

the submental furrow is also called the...

submental sulcus

227

immediately inferior to the mandible

submental furrow

228

junction of the base of the chin and the sub-mandibular area. may appear as a furrow and helps to create the double chin.

submental furrow

229

submental furrow is most noticeable from the...

profile view

230

almost always on a transverse plane with a line of closer of the mouth

dimples

231

elongated dimple on chin (cleft dimple) is always on the...

median line

232

chin dimples are typically more permanent than...

cheek dimples

233

furrow that is adjacent or medial to the nasolabial fold

nasolabial sulcus

234

caused by the continual contraction of the multiheaded quadratus labi superiorus muscle

nasolabial sulcus

235

horizontal furrows across the forehead

transverse frontal sulci

236

transverse frontal sulci vary in...

depthcurvatureinclination

237

transverse frontal sulci can be either...

continuous orinterrupted

238

the depth _____________ in transverse frontal sulci towards its end

diminishes

239

most common form of dip intransverse frontal sulci is at the...

central plane

240

transverse frontal sulci is caused by the continual contraction of the _________________

occipitofrontalis muscle

241

the two classifications of interciliary sulci

1. vertical
2. transverse

242

vertical or slightly oblique furrows that extend upward from the roof of the nose up into (or thru) the eyebrows

vertical interciliary sulci

243

the vertical interciliary sulci is caused by the continual contraction of the

corrugator muscle

244

vertical interciliary sulci is also known as...

frowning furrows

245

transverse inteciliary sulci is caused by the continual contraction of the

procerus muscle

246

furrows that run side to side between eyebrows

transverse interciliary sulci

247

furrows radiating from the lateral corner of the eye

optic facial sulci

248

optic facial sulci is caused by the continual contraction of the...

orbicularis oculi muscle

249

usually the ________ are the _____ acquired facial markings to appear

optic facial sulci
first

250

Furrow on the superior border of the upper eyelid.Apparent when there is an absence of fatty tissue in that region and when the tissues are firm

superior palpebral sulcus

251

Furrow of the lower attached border of the inferior palpebral...the inferior eyelid

inferior palpebral sulcus

252

bags under the eyes...fullness found between the inferior palpebral sulcus & the oblique palpebral sulcus

infraorbital pouch

253

infraorbital pouch is also called

orbital pouch

254

vertical furrow of the cheek area

bucco-facial sulcus

255

see fig. 72 for examples of

bucco-facial sulcus

256

bucco-facial sulcus can sometimes join into the...

mandibular sulcus

257

furrow beneath the jawline that meets which rises

mandibular sulcus

258

multiple forms of mandibular sulci

serrated jawline

259

transverse dipping furrows of the neck...run across the front and sides of the neck

platysmal sulci

260

the vertical prominence of the neck is considered the

cords of the neck

261

cords of the neck are more prominent on...

thinner individuals

262

furrows of agevertical furrows that extend from the upper and lower red lip area (mucus membrane) into the integementary area...generally occur first in the upper lip.

labial sulci

263

labial sulci is also known as..

the furrows of age

264

external facial bones

1. nasal bones (2)
2. zygomatic bones (2)
3. maxilla (2)
4. mandible

265

Forms a dome over the superior portion of the nasal cavity.Located directly inferior to the glabella

nasal bones

266

see glossary for definition

angle of inclination

267

orifice bonded by the margins of the nasal bones and the maxilla

nasal cavity

268

diamond shaped bone of the cheek

zygomatic bone

269

might see zygomatic bone or zygomatic arch as being measured to get the....

widest part of the face

270

just underneath the zygomatic arch you will find the...

zygomatic depression

271

lies lateral to the portion of the cheek inferior to the zygomatic arch

zygomatic depression

272

made up by the frontal bone and the zygomatic bone

zygomatico frontal process

273

two fused bones that form skeletal base of most of the superior face, roof of the mouth, sides of the nasal cavity, and the floor of the orbit (eye socket)

maxilla

274

maxilla is also called the...

upper jaw bone

275

sharp boney projection located medially along the inferior margin of the nasal cavity

nasal spine

276

a slip of skin partition that covers the nasal spine and separates the medial portion of the nostrils.most inferior part of the nose

columna nasi

277

processes of the maxilla

Alveolar process
Frontal process of the maxilla
Palatine Process
Dental Prognathism (buck teeth)

278

bony ridge that contains the tooth sockets

alveolar process

279

ascending part of the upper jaw

frontal process of the maxilla

280

horse shoe shaped single bone of the mouthlower jaw

mandible

281

2 main parts of the mandible

Body Ramus

282

horizontal portion of the mandible

body

283

corresponding vertical portion of the mandible

ramus

284

parts of the body of the mandible

mental eminence
incisive fossa
alveolar processes

285

parts of the ramus of the mandible

condyle
coronoid process
mandibular notch

286

Prominent eminence of the mandible
Triangular projection on the inferior portion of the anterior mandible

mental eminence

287

area between the mental eminence and the inferior incisor teeth

incisive fossa

288

the four teeth located anteriorly from the midline on each jaw; used for cutting

incisive teeth

289

rounded eminence at the articulating end of the bone

condyle

290

non articulating end of the bonethis is where the temporal muscle attaches

coronoid process

291

the depression located between the condyle and the coronoid process

mandibular notch

292

marks the widest part of the lower 1/3 of the face

angle of the mandible

293

a bony angle formed by the junction of the posterior edge of the ramus of the mandible and the inferior surface of the body of the mandible

angle of the mandible

294

widest part of the lower face

bi-mandibular

295

widest part of the head (cranium)

bi-parietal

296

widest part of the face

bi-zygomatic

297

other bones that are not surface bones....they are of less interest to (Alteri)

(cranium)
ethmoid bones
phenoid bone

(facial)
vomer bone
palantine bones
lacrimal bones

298

see pages 20 & 23 for

other bones that are not surface bones

299

muscle provides...

muscle bulk
contour effect
topographical surface form

300

continual muscle contraction leaves...

markings (wrinkles) on the face

301

wrinkles run ___________ to muscle fiber

transverse

302

wrinkles are more pronounced on ______

males

303

loss of muscle tone will cause__________

sagging of tissues

304

what bones make up margins of nasal cavity

nasal bone
maxilla

305

area between mental eminence and area between incisor teeth

incisive fossa

306

What muscle attaches to the coronoid process?

temporal muscle

307

this can play a part in moving muscle tissue inferiorly verses posteriorly

gravitational pull

308

environmenthereditycan all play a part in...

loss of muscle tone

309

the point of muscle attachment which moves the leastThe beginning of muscle contraction

origin

310

the point of muscle attachment which moves the most (greatest) amount.

insertion

311

muscles of the cranium

Occipitofrontalis Muscle (1)
masseter muscle
temporalis muscle

312

Muscle that draws the scalp posteriorly and inferiorly and raises the eyebrows. Thin sheeth located between the occipital and frontal bones.

Occipitofrontalis Muscle

313

Occipitofrontalis Muscle is also known as...

epicranius

314

parts of Occipitofrontalis Muscle

occipitalis
frontalis

315

the frontalis is also called...

the frontal belly

316

the occipitalis is also called...

the occipital belly

317

The effects of the Occipitofrontalis Muscle on Surface Form

1. When contracted it raises eyebrows
2. Continual contraction forms Transverse Frontal Sulci

318

wrinkles (lines) that run across the front of the forehead

transverse frontal sulci

319

Transverse frontal sulci is what type of facial marking?

Acquired

320

Name the types of Muscles of Mastication

1. Temporalis (2)
2. Masseter (2)

321

broad fan shaped muscle located along the temporal bone.fairly thin

temporalis muscle

322

the purpose of the temporalis muscle...

closes mandible mastication
some side-to-side movement

323

what is the strongest chewing muscle (muscle of mastication)?

temporalis muscle

324

temporalis muscle effect on surface form...

provides SOME bulk to the temporal cavity

325

the temporalis muscle overlies what muscle?

squamous muscle

326

masseter muscle effect on surface form

provides bulk to the side of the cheek

327

function of masseter muscle is...

mastication
closes the mandible

328

this muscle is not the strongest of the chewing muscles

masseter muscle

329

Located in bucal area (cheek area)Begins below the Zygomatic Arch and extends to the angle of the mandible. (along side of the face)

masseter muscle

330

muscles of facial expression

1. Muscles of the eye
2. Muscles of the nose
3. Muscles of the mouth

331

muscles of the EYE that control facial expression

1. Orbicularis Oculi
2. Corrugator
3. Levator Palpebrae Superioris

332

TRUE sphincter muscle that surrounds the eye socket...closes the eyelids and compresses the lacrimal sac

orbicularis oculi

333

functions of the orbicularis oculi

1. closes the eyelid when contracted
2. compresses the lacrimal sac

334

if the lacrimal sac is compressed it produces...

tears

335

the size, area, and function allows the orbicularis oculi effect on surface form to be...

optic facial sulci (crows feet...obligue wrinkles)

336

optic facial sulci is also known as...

crows feet

337

crows feet is also known as ...

oblique muscles

338

crows feet is what type of wrinkle?

acquired

339

corrugator is also known as...

frowning muscle

340

The corrugator muscle is what shape?

pyramid

341

the function of the corrugator muscle.

draw the eyebrow downward & medially when contracted

342

located toward the medial end of the eyebrowruns from root of the nose to upper rim of eye socket (oblique)

corrugator muscle

343

corrugator muscle effect on surface form

vertical interciliary sulci

344

a ferlow located between the eyebrows (wrinkles)

vertical interciliary sulci

345

function of the levator palpebrae superioris

lifts (raises or elevates) the upper eyelid

346

eyelid is called

palpebrae

347

upper eyelid is called

palpebrae superioris

348

levator means...

lift or raise

349

the levator palpebrae superioris effect on surface form...

palpebral fold (occurs with age)

350

located along inferior margin of the upper eyelid

superior tarsus

351

located along the superior margin of the lower eyeliddoes not have as much vertical dimension as its superior counterpart

inferior tarsus

352

the degree from vertical at which the surface(s) of a prominent feature projects.

angle of projection

353

slope; deviation from the horizontal or vertical; oblique

inclination

354

buck teeth

Dental Prognathism

355

a bony ridge found on the inferior surface of the Maxilla and the superior surface of the Mandible which contains the sockets for the teeth.

alveolar process

356

the ascending part of the upper jaw which gradually protrudes as it rises beside the nasal bone to meet the frontal bone; the ascending process of the upper jaw.

frontal process of the maxilla

357

muscle of facial expression which depresses the angle (corner) of the mouth

TRIANGULARIS

358

TRIANGULARIS is also known as

Depressor Angulus Oris

359

The triangularis effect on surface form

forms the Angulus Oris Eminence

360

muscles of the mouth & anterior cheek

1. Quadratus Labii Superioris
2. Levator Anguli Oris
3. Risorius
4. Depressor Labii Inferioris
5. Mentalis

361

Three muscles that make up the Quadratus Labii Superioris

1. Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi
2. Levator Labii Superioris
3. Zygomaticus Minor

362

multi headed muscle (3 heads plus muscle itself)...large and extends from the cheek bone in lower rim of eye socket and serves to raise the upper lip

Quadratus Labii Superioris

363

elevates or raises the upper lip and dilates the nostrils

Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi

364

helps to elevate and extend the upper lip

Levator Labii Superioris

365

Draws the superior lip superiorly and anteriorly...however, text and other sources suggest "superiorly and laterally" ******DEFINITION IS QUOTATIONS IS WHAT ALTERI WANTS US TO KNOW.

Zygomaticus Minor

366

function of the Quadratus Labii Superioris

serves to raise the upper lip..."sneer"<----Elvis face

367

furrow lying medial and adjacent to the nasolabial fold; ACQUIRED

nasolabial sulcus

368

Quadratus Labii Superioris effect on surface form

nasolabial sulcus

369

acquired and can accompany the nasolabial fold

nasolabial sulcus

370

located beneath the Quadratus Labii Superioris muscle and in the region of the canine teeth.

Levator Anguli Oris

371

function of the Levator Anguli Oris

to elevate the angle of the mouth

372

the Levator Anguli Oris effect on surface form

nasolabial fold

373

nasolabial fold is what type of process

natural

374

false smile muscle

Risorius

375

function of the risorius

retracts the angle of the mouth

376

textbook says it draws angle of mouth posteriorly, but Alteri says..."narrow superficial band of muscle which pulls the angle of the mouth outward or laterally."

Risorius

377

The depressor labii inferioris muscle is also known as

quadratus muscle

378

Risorius muscle has no noticeable effect on...

surface form

379

Function of the depressor labii inferioris

depresses the lower lip...moves it inferiorly and SLIGHTLY laterally

380

a single muscle located on the chin...elevates and protrudes the inferior (lower) lip

mentalis muscle

381

helps to temporarily wrinkle the skin over the chin area

mentalis muscle

382

the mentalis muscle effect on surface form

provides anterior (bulk) projection of the chin

383

anterior projection of the chin

mental eminence

384

and elongated dimple chin is called...

cleft chin

385

elongated dimple

cleft

386

if the cleft on chin runs under the chin...giving appearance of two lobes...

bilobated chin

387

a depression in the chin is called..

chin dimple

388

muscles of the neck

1. Platysma
2. Sternocleidomastoid
3. Digastricus

389

location and points of attachment

platysma

390

fills up the space in the neck...depresses mandible & lower lip

platysma

391

The platysma effect on surface form

1. Bucco-facial Sulcus
2. Mandibular Sulcus
3. Serrated Jawline
4. Platysmal Sulci

392

get definition of all of the surface form platysma

effects

393

helps to rotate head, depress, & lower the head.

sternocleidomastoid muscle

394

the measurement from one BELLY OF THE sternocleidomastoid to another gives the...

widest part of the neck

395

double bellied muscle which draws the hyoid bone superiorly

Digastricus

396

the hyoid bone does not...

articulate with another bone (free floating bone)

397

function of the digastricus is to

help manipulate the tongue

398

the effect on surface form of the Digastricus

cords of the neck

399

processes on the temporal and zygomatic bones; determines the widest part of the face

zygomatic arch

400

one of the lesser concavities of the face located on the lateral portion of the cheek inferior to the zygomatic arch

zygomatic arch depression

401

muscle responsible for raising the upper eyelid

levator palpebrae superioris

402

muscle responsible for creating the philtrum...this is its effect on surface form

orbicularis oris

403

principle muscle of the cheek which compresses the cheeks and forms the lateral wall of the mouth

buccinator

404

muscle draws the scalp posteriorly and raises the eyebrows when contracted

occipitofrontalis

405

furrows radiating from the lateral corner of the eye

optic facial sulci

406

SMALL convex prominence found lateral to the end of the line of closure of the mouth

angulus oris eminence

407

what type of marking is the angulus oris eminence

natural

408

muscles of the nose

procerus muscle

409

narrow elongated muscle, this muscle covers the bridge of the nose, located on the nasal bones up to the forehead

procerus muscle

410

its function is to draw skin downward (inferiorly)

procerus muscle

411

procerus muscle effect on surface form

transverse interciliary sulci

412

muscles of the mouth

1. orbicularis oris
2. zygomaticus major
3. buccinator
4. triangularis

413

the mouth is known as...

the center of expression

414

this muscle is known at the Puckering Muscle

orbicularis oris

415

flat band of muscles in the upper and lower red lips and integumentary lips

orbicularis oris

416

function of the orbicularis oris

closes and puckers the lips
compresses lips against teeth
shapes lips during speech

417

a NATURAL facial marking...the vertical groove located medially on the superior lip

philtrum

418

muscles converging at the mouth corners

zygomaticus major

419

zygomaticus major is also known as...

laughing muscle

420

extends from the cheekbone to angle of the mouth

zygomaticus major

421

function is the corner of mouth is raised when this muscle contracts...draws the upper lip posteriorly , superiorly, and laterally as in smiling or laughing

zygomaticus major

422

zygomaticus major effect on surface form

angulus oris eminence

423

effects of buccinator on surface form

multiple effects...
helps form angulus oris eminence
bucco-facial sulcus forms lateral wall of cheek

424

vertical furrow of the cheek...ACQUIRED FACIAL MARKING

BUCCO=FACIAL SULCUS

425

Use _____ plastic or wood splints (dowels) or _________ rods that are approximately ___ -____ inches long that are _______________ to reattach the head

3
metal
8
12
sharpened