5 - ENT - Rhinology - Nasal obstruction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5 - ENT - Rhinology - Nasal obstruction Deck (18):
1

7 causes of this

rhinosinusitis
nasal polps
FB's
nasal septum abnormalities
turbinate hypertrophy
adenoid hypertrophy
neoplasm

2

Nasal polyps - typically which parts of nasal area

middle turbinates, middle meatus, ethmoid sinus

usually bilateral

3

describe a nasal polyp

grey/pale, slightly translucent, mobile and insensitive to palpation

4

when would a biopsy of a nasal polyp be needed

if unilateral, bleeding or painful

5

Antrochoanal polyps - in who? originate and extend to where?

most frequently in young men

maxillary sinus > through ostium to nasal cavity

may extend to nasopharynx and mouth - valve causing unilateral obstruction on expiration

6

nasal polyps - associations

allergic rhinosinusitis
non-allergic rhinosinusitis
chronic rhinosinusitis
Cystic fibrosis
TRIAD - polyps, asthma, aspirin sensitivity

7

Sx of nasal polyps

watery rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, anosmia, mouth breathing, snoring, rhinosinusitis

8

mgmt of nasal polyps

steroid drops - then maintenance with steroid spray

endoscopic polypectomy - follow with steroid drops

9

Nasal septum abnormalities - 3 types

septal deviation
septal perforation
septal haematoma

10

septal deviation - cause? deviation site?

trauma later in life or decent down birth canal

may be at columella or further back into nose

11

septal deviation - nasal reduction - when assessed? when performed?

assess immediately following trauma or 5-10 days after when swelling subsides

performed within 2 weeks as bone sets by 3 weeks

12

Septal perforation - traumatic causes

surgical, nose picking, piercings

13

septal perf - avascular necrosis causes

cocaine, sickle cell disease, 2 to haematoma/abscess

14

septal perf - granulomatous inflammation causes

+other type of cause

TB, sarcoid, syphilis, Wegeners granulomatosis (type of vasculitis)

malignancy - eg skin BCC

15

Septal haematoma - from what? what happens?

following nasal surgery, or trauma

blood accumulates between cartilage and perichondrium

16

mgmt of septal haematoma

drainage needed - risk of avascular necrosis or abscess

17

Turbinate hypertrophy - normally which one? causes?

inferior one

idiopathic, long term allergic rhinosinusitis, chornic rhinosinusitis, long term decongestant use

18

mgmt of turbinate hypertrophy

steroid spray, antihistamines for allergy

surgery - turbinectomy, sub mucous diathermy - scarring and shrinkage

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