# Chapter 11.3 Flashcards

1
Q

GENE POOL

A

Is an population entire collection of genes and their alleles

2
Q

EVOLUTION

A

Is the change in allele frequencies

3
Q

To calculate GENE FREQUENCY

A

1 gene frequency is calculated as the copies of that allele, divided by the total number of alleles in that population

copies of alleles/ by the total # of alleles in the population

4
Q

GENOTYPE FREQUENCIES

A

It is the number of individuals with that genotype divided by the total size of the population

individuals with that genotype/ population total

5
Q

What determines the genetic characteristics of a population

A

Allele and genotype frequencies

6
Q

What drives evolution

A

The shifting alleles fequencies in a populations are the small steps of change that collectively drive evolution

7
Q

HARDY -WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM

A

Is the highly unlikely situation in which allele frequencies and genotype frequencies do not change from one generation to the next

p +q=1 ( represents frequency of both alleles of a gene in a population of a diploid organisim-if only 2 alleles exist for a gene

e.g: If D= frequency of dark fur allele=.06

d= frequency of tan fur allele=.04

D +d = 1 ( .06 + .04=1)

1= The 2 alleles=all the possible allele in a population

8
Q

When does HARDY -WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM occur

A
1. mutations do not occur: thus new alleles do not arise
2. Individuals mate at random
3. Individuals to not mate into or out of a population
4. The population is infinitely large enough to eliminate random changes in allele frequencies ( genetic drift)
5. natural selection does not occcur
9
Q

What is the direct measure of evolution

A

Changes in allele frequencies

10
Q

how can we use Hardy -Weinberg Equilibrium to calculate allele frequency

A

**At ** Hardy -Weinberg Equilibrium we can use allele frequencies to calculate genotype frquencies

p= frequency of allele D

p2=Those with the allele DD ( p xp) ( .06x.06)

q2= dd ( .04x.04)

Heterozygous = pq

11
Q

The formula for all the population allele frequency to include heterozygote and homozygote

A

Since heterozygote and homozygote account for all the possible genotypes in the populationthe sum of their Frequencies must add up to one(1)

p2 +2pq+q2=1

homozygote dominant +(2 heterozygotes)+ homozygotes recessive=all the alleles in a population

12
Q

If the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium are met what will occur in future generations

A

Their allele and genotype frequency will not change

13
Q

GENOTYPE

A

an individuals combination of alleles for a particular gene

14
Q

Allele frequencies always change. When does this occur in a population

A
1. mutation intrduces new alleles
2. Nonradom mating (closed groups mate among themselves intead of the larger population)
3. individuals migrate among populations
4. change due to chance (Genetic Drift)
5. some phenotype are better adapted to the environment than others ( natural selection)
6. No population is infinitely large
7.
15
Q

Why is Hardy Weingerg Equilibrium important

A

It serves as a basis of comparison to reveal when microevolution is occuring

16
Q

What are the five conditions required for Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium

A

The five conditions required for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are:

• no mutations;
• random mating;
• no emigration or immigration;
• the population is large enough to eliminate random changes in allele frequencies (genetic drift);
• natural selection does not occur.
17
Q

Why is the concept of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium important

A

The concept of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is important because it shows that evolution has the potential to occur at all times; in fact, evolution is probably occurring at all times in all populations.

18
Q

Explain the components and meaning of the equation p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.

A

In the Hardy-Weinberg equation, p= the frequency of the dominant allele in a population, q= the frequency of the recessive allele, and pq= the product of p and q. The equation p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 says that all individuals in a population are homozygous dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous recessive (for a gene with only two alleles). By applying the Hardy-Weinberg equation at different times, it is possible to observe changes in allele frequency and determine whether evolution is occurring.

19
Q

Why doesn’t Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium occur in real populations?

A

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium does not occur in real populations because the conditions for it are never met in real populations.

20
Q
A