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Flashcards in A First Look at Anatomy Deck (61):
1

Studies the gross anatomy of each system e.g. digestive system, circulatory system

Systemic Anatomy

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Studies all structures in a particular body region e.g. the head, regions of gun shot wounds.

Regional Anatomy

3

Study of the landmarks outside of the body that are created by underlying structures and their medical importance

Surface Anatomy

4

What forms an organism?

Atoms- Molecules- Cells- Tissues- Organs- Organ System

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Occurs in 1 in 7000-8000 persons, usually without any health problems. The internal organs switch the typical side they are found. (Heart on the right side, liver on the left etc.) In males with this condition, the right testicle hangs lower than the left. In normal males, the left testicle hangs lower.

Situs Inversus

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Divides the body into upper and lower portions

Transverse, Cross-sectional or horizontal plane

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Midsaggital (median) plane

Divides the body in equal left and right parts. A saggital plane is when is either left or right of the midline.

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Anterior (ventral)

In front of

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Posterior (dorsal)

In back of

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Superior (cranial or rostral)

closer to the head or above

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Inferior (caudal)

Closer to the feet

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Medial

Toward the midline of the body

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Lateral

away from the midline of the body

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Internal

deep

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external

superficial

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Section and Plane difference

Section implies an actual cut or slice. Plane implies an imaginary flat surface passing the body.

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Divides the body lengthwise into front and back.

Coronal or Frontal Plane

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closest point of attachment to trunk or midline or closest to any point of reference that is given.

proximal

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Furthest from point of attachment to trunk or midline or furthest from any point of reference that is given.

Distal

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Axial Region

1) Head. 2) Neck. 3) Trunk (chest and abdominal regions)

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Appendicular region

Upper extremity and lower extremity.

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Posterior body cavity

Cranial Cavity and Vertebral Cavity

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Anterior body cavity

Thoracic Cavity and Adbominopelvic cavity. These two cavities are separated by a skeletal muscle called the diaphragm

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It is found within the Thoracic cavity. It contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several major blood vessels.

Mediastinum

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Pericardium

A two-layered serous membrane which surrounds the heart.

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parietal pericardium

outermost layer associated with the internal surface of the body wall.

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Visceral pericardium

is the innermost layer associated with the internal organs

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Pericardial cavity

It is the potential space between the parietal and visceral pericardia and it contains lubricating serous fluid. The heart is NOT in the pericardial cavity but is surrounded by pericardial membranes.

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It is the space that exists when a lung is removed.

Pulmonary Cavity

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Parietal Pleura

It is the inner surface of a pulmonary cavity which is lined with a serous membrane. It is the firmly attached to the chest wall.

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Visceral Pleura

It is firmly attached the outer surface of the lungs. The potential space between the parietal and visceral pleura is called the pleural cavity and it contains lubricating serous fluid.

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Abdominopelvic Cavity

Consists of the abdominal cavity which is superior to an imaginary line drawn between the superior aspects of the hip (pelvic) bones, and the Pelvic Cavity which is inferior to this imaginary line.

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Abdominal Cavity contains...

stomach, spleen, liver, pancreas, small intestine, most of large intestine, kidneys, and ureters.

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It is a moist, two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity.

Peritoneum

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lines the internal walls of the abdominopelvic cavity

Parietal peritoneum

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ensheaths the external surface of most digestive organs.

visceral peritoneum

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the potential space between the parietal and visceral layers.

Peritoneal cavity

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a diagnostic test in which rinse solution is inserted and then removed from the Peritoneal cavity to detect traumatic damage.

Peritoneal lavage

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Cerumen

Earwax

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Types of Cavities in the head

Oral (buccal cavity), Nasal, Orbital, Middle ear cavitites

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Mucous Membranes line the...

Respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary tract, and reproductive system.

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Characteristics of Living Things

Organization, Metabolism, Growth and Development, Responsiveness, Adaptation, Regulation (homeostasis), and Reproduction

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Homeostasis

regulating a consistent internal environment.

44

It is the primary method of obtaining a clinical image of a body part for diagnostic purposes. It uses x-rays (high -energy radiation) which pass through soft tissues but are absorbed by dense tissues such as bone, teeth, and tumors. Hollow organs can be visualized if they are filled with radiopaque, a substance that absorbs x-rays.

Radiography

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are also called roentgen rays because of Wilhelm Roentgen who discovered by accident.

X-rays

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What are Ct scans useful for?

identifying tumors, aneurysms, kidney stones, cerebral hemorrhages, and other abnormalities.

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Retroperitoneal organs

Organs that are in the abdominal cavity but not surround by the peritoneum. Kidneys Pancreas Ascending Colon Duodenum Descending Colon Rectum Bladder

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Contains part of the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, part of the small and large intestines

Right Upper Quadrant of the Abdomen

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Left lobe of the liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, part of the small and large intestines.

Left Upper Quadrant of the Abdomen

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Part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, and right ureter.

Right Lower Quadrant

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Part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, and left ureter

Left Lower Quadrant

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Its primary function is that it filters blood as part of the immune system. Older erythrocytes are recycled and acts as blood storage area.

Function of the spleen

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helps you digest fats stores bile produced by the liver.

Function of the Gallbladder

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An instrument for examining the larynx and helps you navigate the throats curves and narrows.

Laryngoscope

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Cullen's Sign

intra-abdominal bleeding (peritoneal bleeding, or more rarely, retroperitoneal bleeding.) Edema and bruising in the subcutaneous fatty tissue around the umbilicus.

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Layers of the dermis

The papillary layer (stratum papillarosum) The reticular layer (stratum reticularosum)

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This layer has numerous blood vessels and nerve endings

Stratum papillarosum

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This layer contains a network of collagen and elastic fibers.

Stratum reticularosum

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Q image thumb

Cullen's Sign for intra-abdominal bleeding (peritoneal bleeding, rarely retroperitoneal)

60

Q image thumb

Peritoneal Lavage to detect traumatic damage of peritoneal abdominal organs

61

Q image thumb

Plantar Warts