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Flashcards in Lymphatic System Deck (51):
1

It assists the cardiovascular system by transporting excess interstitial fluid through lymphatic vessels. Lymph is filtered and checked for foreign or pathologic material, such as cancer cells and bacteria. Lymphatic structures contain certain cells that can initiate an immune response to abnormal materials and perform other functions essential to homeostasis and survival.

Lymphatic System Function

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They are lymphatic vessels which drain into larger lymphatic vessels and eventually the bloodstream. They absorb lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins that are unable to enter the bloodstream directly from the GI tract. They also pick up interstitial fluid. The lymph is also called chyle.

Lacteals

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They house lymphocytes which are a type of white blood cell or leukocyte. They assist in these cells' maturation, while others serve for lymphocyte replication. They are completely surrounded by a connective tissue matrix.

Lymphatic Organs

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They are not surrounded by a connective tissue capsule and are ovoid clusters of lymphatic cells with some surround extracellular connective tissue matrix. They are usually small. They attack and filter antigens. Some of these can group together to form MALT.

Lymphatic Nodules

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MALT

Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue. They are large collections of lymphatic nodules and are located in the mucosal lining of the GI, respiratory, genital, and urinary tracts. The MALT detects antigens from the respective tracts and initiate an immune response.

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They are collections of lymphatic nodules that are primarily in the ileum. They can be quite large and bulge into the gut lumen.

Peyer Patches

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They are closed-ended tubes that are found among most blood capillary networks, except those in the red bone marrow and central nervous system. They are similar but slightly bigger that blood capillaries.

Lymphatic Capillaries

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They resemble small veins, in that both contain three tunics and both have one-way valves.

Lymphatic vessels

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It is located near the right clavicle and returns the lymph into the juncture of the right subclavian vein and the right internal jugular vein. It receives lymph from the lymphatic trunks that drain the right side of the head and neck, right upper limb, and right side of the thorax. It is the shorter of the lymphatic ducts

Right lymphatic duct

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It is the largest lymph vessel, with the length of about 15-18 inches. It travels superiorly from the cisterna chyli and lies directly anterior to the vertebral bodies. It receives lymph from the rest of the body that the right lymphatic duct doesn't get lymph from. It drains lymph into the left subclavian vein and the left internal jugular vein.

Thoracic Duct

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It is at the base of the thoracic duct and anterior to the L2 vertebra. It is a round, saclike structure. It receives chyle from the small intestine.

Cisterna Chyli

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They attack and destroy the antigen directly.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes

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They produce soluble proteins called antibodies that bind to and immobilize the foreign or abnormal agent, thus damaging it or identifying it to the other elements of the immune system.

B-Lymphocytes

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They are cells that remember the past antigen encounters and initiate an even faster and more powerful immune response should the same antigen appear again.

T-memory cells and B-memory cells

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They are large clusters of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix that are not completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule.

Tonsils

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They have invaginated outer edges that trap material and facilitate its identification by lymphocytes.

crypts

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are in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. When these tonsils enlarge they can reduce air flow through the nasopharynx when sleeping.

Pharyngeal tonsils/adenoids

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tonsils which are in the posteriolateral of the oral cavity.

Palatine

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tonsils which are along the posterior one-third of the tongue.

Lingual

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It is a bilobed organ located in the anterior mediastinum behind he sternum. It is quite large in infants and young children and is almost non-functional in late adulthood. It is a site for T-lymphocyte maturation and differentiation.

Thymus

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They are small, round or oval structures located along the pathways of lymphatic vessels. They are typically found in clusters.

Lymph Nodes

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are found in the armpit and receive lymph from the breast, axilla, and upper limb.

Axillary lymph nodes

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are in the neck and receive lymph from the head and neck.

Cervical lymph nodes

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are found in the groin and receive lymph from the lower limb and pelvis.

Inguinal lymph nodes

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The primary function of a lymph node

is to filter antigens from lymph and initiate an immune response when necessary.

26

When a person is sick with a strep throat, the cervical lymph nodes are often swollen and tender to touch. why is this?

This is because the lymphocytes are proliferating and attempting to control the spread of infection.

27

The spread of cancer throughout the body. The spreading can travel easily through the lymphatic system. A lymph node enlarged by cancer tends to firm and nontender.

Metastasis

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It is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. It is located in the left upper abdominal quadrant, inferior to the diaphragm and adjacent to ribs 9-11.

Spleen

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where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the spleen. The pancreas always touches this

hilum

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arises from the celiac trunk and delivers blood to the spleen.

Splenic artery

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removes blood from the spleen and drains into the hepatic portal vein.
T and B lymphocytes monitor the blood for antigens. It is also a blood reservoir.

Splenic Vein

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A microscopic leak between lymphatic vessels and the kidney.

Chyluria

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A slender nematode transmitted by tropical mosquitos

Wuchereria Bancrofti

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The blocking and accumulation of lymph in the lymph vessels causing enlargement of limbs.

Elephentiasis

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an accumulation of interstitial fluid that occurs due to interference with lymphatic drainage in a part of the body. most cases are obstructive, meaning they are caused by blockage of lymph vessels

lymphedema

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filarial worms lodge in the lymphatic system for years and eventually obstruct lymphatic drainage

Lymphatic Filariasis

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tonsils that become inflamed and infected. palatine tonsils are most commonly affected. symptoms include fever, chills, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing.

acute tonsillitis

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persistent or recurrent infections can lead to permanent enlargement of the tonsils. If medical treatment is ineffective, surgical removal may be necessary.

chronic tonsillitis

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surgical removal of tonsils. suggest performing only if person has had 7 infections in 1 year, 5 in 2yr, or 3 per year for 3 running years

tonsillectomy

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lymph nodes that can only be palpated when enlarged

axillary and inguinal

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sore throat, fever, and generalized swelling of all lymph nodes

symptoms of mononucleosis

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swelling limited to cervical region and sore throat

symptoms of cold

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malignant neoplasm that develops from lymphatic tissue. Usually presents as a nontender, enlarged lymph node in the neck or axillary region. some may also experience night sweats, fever, and weightloss

Lymphoma

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characterized by presence of the Reed-Sternberg cell surrounded by lymphocytes within the affected lymph node. usually affects young adults or those over 60. arises in a lymph node and then spreads to other nearby lymph nodes. may be treated and cured by excision of tumor, radiation, and or chemotherapy if caught early

Hodgkin Lymphoma (Hodgkin Disease)

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large cell whose two nuclei resemble owl eyes

Reed-Sternberg cell

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more common type of lymphoma. typically develop in lymphatic structures, usually from abnormal B-lympnocytes. Some types are aggressive and often fatal, whereas others are slow growing and more responsive to treatment. Treatment depends on type of lymphoma, extent of its spread at time of discovery, and rate of progression of the malignancy

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

47

Ms. Chang: had cervical cancer. hysterectomy removed residual growth for a few years. slipped at work and hurt her back. son noticed bulge in her neck, the stony lump was malignant lymph nodes along her spine. term for spread of cancer in the body?

cancer had METASTASIZED.

48

works by killing rapidly dividing cells. side effects are nausea resulting from interactions in the brain and GI tract, and anemia from the depletion of normal but rapidly dividing red blood cells.

chemotherapy

49

Ms. Chang grew tolerant to narcotic (morphine). what drug did he use that changes the way the body interprets pain, reducing the sense of suffering and despair? What drug did he use that reduces pain that results from the body's reaction to the invading cancer? What treatment was used to shrink tumors and temporarily arrest their growth?

antidepressant, anti-inflammatory agents, and short courses of x-rays to metastases

50

How did Ms. Chang's cancer finally kill her?

cancer grew rapidly, blocking ureters. kidneys failed due to obstruction. she went into a coma and died

51

What is the single most common cause of UTIs? What medication will get rid of it?

E.coli, treated with sulfa drug (antibiotic).