Vessels and Circulation #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vessels and Circulation #1 Deck (148):
1

Circulation that consists of left atrium, left ventricle, and all named arteries and veins blood travels through until it comes back to the heart (not including right atrium)

Systemic Circulation

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high pressure circulation system

systemic

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Circulation that consists of right atrium, right ventricle, and all named arteries and veins that blood travels through until it comes back to the heart (not including left atrium)

Pulmonary Circulation

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low pressure circulation system

pulmonary

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3 classes of blood vessels

Arteries, Capillaries, and Veins

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carry blood from heart and become progressively smaller as they travel farther from heart

Arteries

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Arteries branch into these smaller vessels

Arterioles

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where gas and nutrient exchange occurs between tissue cells and blood

Capillaries

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carry blood to heart and become progressively larger as they merge and travel closer to heart

Veins

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Veins receive blood from these small branches of vessels

Venules

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site where two or more arteries or veins merge to supply the same body region

Anastomosis

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provide alternate blood supply routes to body tissues or organs

Arterial Anastomoses

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Which type of vessel forms many more anastomoses than the other?

Veins form more

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When there is only one pathway through which blood can reach an organ.

End Arteries

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Two examples of end arteries

Renal Artery and Splenic artery

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Arteries that do not form and anastomoses

End Arteries

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When an artery will travel with the corresponding vein because they service the same body region and tend to lie next one another

Companion vessels

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Both arteries and veins walls have three layers called what

Tunics

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The tunics surround this inside space of the blood vessel through which blood flows

Lumen

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The innermost layer of a blood vessel wall

Tunica intima

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What layer of a blood vessel wall has structural differences between veins and arteries? What is the structural difference?

The Tunica intima in the veins has one-way valves which are not seen in arteries

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What is the tunica intima composed of?

Endothelium and a subendothelial layer (thin layer of connective tissue)

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The middle layer of the blood vessel wall

Tunica media

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What is that tunica media composed of?

Circularly arranged layers of smooth muscle cells

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In the blood vessel tunics what causes the smooth muscles to contract, resulting in narrowing of the blood vessel lumen? What is the term for this action?

Sympathetic innervation causes vasoconstriction

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What is the term or when the smooth muscle fibers relax in the blood vessel tunics and result in widening the blood vessel lumen?

Vasodilation

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The vasomotor center, responsible for vasoconstriction and vasodilation, resides where the brain?

Medulla oblongata

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The outermost layer of a blood vessel wall

Tunica externa

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What is the tunica externa composed of?

Connective tissue that contains elastic and collagen fibers

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Which is the thickest tunic in arteries? In veins?

Arteries= tunica media, veins= tunica externa

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Very large blood vessels require their own blood supply to and through which Tunica in the form of a network of small arteries?

Tunica externa

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This is narrower in an artery than in a vein of the same size

The lumen

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Arteries tend to have more what in all their tunics? What does this mean?

They have more elastic and collagen fibers which means that artery walls remain open (patent) and can spring back to shape

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Vein walls tend to do what if there's no blood in them?

Collapse

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Capillaries contain only which tunic?

Tunica intima

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The tunica intima of capillaries consist of what?

A basement membrane and endothelium only

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Capillaries containing only the tunica intima allow for easier what?

Exchange of materials between the blood in the vessels and the interstitial fluid

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What is the scientific name for tissue fluid?

Interstitial fluid

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What is the primary function of capillaries?

Exchange of materials

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If the veins collapsed and there is severe hypotension, what life-saving procedure can be done?

Intraosseous infusion (IO)

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In general, as an artery's diameter decreases, there is a corresponding decrease in what? And a relative increase in what?

A decrease in the amount of elastic fibers and a relative increase in the amount of smooth muscle

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What are the three basic types of arteries?

Elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles

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Which type of artery is the largest, with diameters ranging from 2.5 to 1 cm?

Elastic arteries

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Elastic arteries have a large proportion of what throughout all three tunics, especially in this layer?

Elastic fibers, especially in the Tunica media

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The abundant elastic fibers within elastic arteries allow them to do what?

Stretch when a heart to ventricle ejects blood into it

46

What is responsible for the forwarding propulsion of your arterial blood?

Ventricular systole and the elastic recoil of the arterial walls

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Name six elastic arteries

Aorta, pulmonary, brachiocephalic, common carotid, subclavian, and common iliac arteries

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Elastic arteries branch into what?

Muscular arteries

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This type of artery typically has diameters ranging from 1cm-3mm

Muscular arteries

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Unlike elastic arteries, how are the elastic fibers within muscular arteries arranged?

They are confined to 2 laminar rings (one ring between the tunica intima and media, and the second between the Tunica media and externa)

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Most of the named arteries belong to which category?

Muscular arteries

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Muscular arteries branch into what?

Arterioles

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These are the smallest arteries, what diameters ranging from 3 mm to 10 µm

Arterioles

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Which layer of muscular arteries are proportionately thicker, with multiple layers of smooth muscle? This results in a better ability do what?

thicker tunica media gives them a better ability to vasoconstrict and vasodilate

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How do larger arterioles and smaller arterioles differ?

Larger arterioles have all three tunics, whereas the smallest arterioles have fewer

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What do arterioles regulate by vasoconstricting or vasodilating?

Arterial blood pressure AND blood flow through capillaries

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What connects arterioles to venules?

Capillaries, the smallest blood vessels

58

The average capillary diameter is just slightly larger than what? What does this mean?

The diameter of a single erythrocyte; erythrocytes must travel single file through each capillary

59

What causes blockages and infarctions in body organs, such as the spleen and brain, due to narrow vessel diameter?

Sickle cell disease

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Sickle cell disease is caused by inheritance of a gene for what abnormal protein?

Hemoglobin (hemoglobin–S)

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Functional units of the cardiovascular system

Capillaries

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Three different structural types of capillaries

Continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, and sinusoids

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What is the most common type of capillaries, composed of endothelial cells that form a complete, continuous lining and are connected by tight junctions?

Continuous capillaries

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This type of capillary makes passing materials through endothelial cells or the intercellular clefts to and from the surrounding interstitial fluid possible

Continuous capillaries

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This type of capillary is seen where a great deal of fluid transport occurs between the blood and interstitial fluid of the tissues? Name three locations

Fenestrated capillaries (have fenestrations within each endothelial cell) can be seen in the intestines, endocrine glands, and kidneys.

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What is meant by fenestration?

An opening in the surface of structure, as in a membrane

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Which type of capillary tend to be wider, larger vessels with openings that allow for transport of larger materials, such as proteins or cells? Where can they be found?

Sinusoids are found in the bone marrow, the spleen, the anterior pituitary, the liver, and several other locations.

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Compared with the corresponding artery, vein walls are relatively ______, and the lumen is ______.

Thin; larger

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Veins function as? Meaning what?

Blood reservoirs. At rest, the body's veins hold about 60% of the body's blood.

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What type of organ is the spleen?

Lymphoid

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Why is there very little pressure in veins?

Because most of the pressure has dissipated after traveling through the smaller arteries and capillaries

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What is the smallest type of vein called? What happens when it's diameter is greater than 100 µm?

venule; it becomes a vein

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What do the smallest venules do? Do they have all three tunics?

The smallest venules drain capillaries. Only the largest venules have all three tunics.

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Smaller and medium sized veins typically travel with which arteries? Largest veins?

Smaller and medium-sized veins typically travel with muscular arteries, while the largest veins travel with elastic arteries

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Formed primarily of tunica intima and strengthened by elastic and collagen fibers, these prevent blood from pooling in the limbs and assist blood moving back to the heart

One way valve in veins

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Describe the "skeletal muscle pump" process

Nearby skeletal muscles squeeze veins when they shorten and contract, propelling the blood superiorly.

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Venous return is assisted by what two processes?

The Skeletal Muscle Pump and the Respiratory Pump

78

When a person inhales, the diaphragm contracts and increases the pressure in the abdominal cavity, which helps propel blood into the thoracic cavity. When a person exhales, the diaphragm relaxes and decreases the volume of the thoracic cavity, which increases the intrathoracic pressure, moving blood from the thoracic cavity into the heart. In addition, intra-abdominal pressure decreases, allowing more blood to move from the lower limbs into the abdominal vessels. What is this process known as?

The respiratory pump

79

How does activity level affect blood flow through veins?

Blood flows well through veins when persons are active and blood has a tendency to pool in the leg veins when persons are inactive or bedridden.

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Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle of the heart and enters the:

ascending aorta

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These emerge immediately from the wall of the ascending aorta (just superior to aortic semilunar valve) and supply the heart.

left and right coronary arteries

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The ascending aorta curves towards the left side of the body and becomes the:

aortic arch

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3 main arterial branches emerge from the aortic arch

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery

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The brachiocephalic trunk bifurcate into the:

Right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery

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Supplies arterial blood to the right side of the head and neck

Right common carotid artery

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Supplies arterial blood to the right upper limb and some thoracic structures

Right subclavian artery

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Supplies arterial blood to the left side of the head and neck

Left common carotid artery

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Supply arterial blood to the left upper limb and some thoracic structures

Left subclavian artery

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sudden decelerations can damage the aortic arch or descending thoracic aorta in what ways?

Aortic transactions (typically fatal, DRT) and aortic dissections (90% fatal, very painful, typically between the tunica media and intima)

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What is the term for stationary blood clot?

Thrombi

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What is the term for mobile blood clot?

Emboli

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What is the fatal condition resulting from an embolus encountering its first capillary beds?

Pulmonary embolism

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Interruption of blood flow in these arteries causes loss of consciousness

Left and right common carotid arteries

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At the superior border of the thyroid cartilage each common carotid artery divides into what? Which structures do they supply blood to?

External carotid artery (structures external to the skull) and internal carotid artery (internal skull structures)

95

What structure at which bifurcation contains baroreceptors?

The carotid sinus where the common carotid arteries bifurcate

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Pressure sensors which monitor blood pressure, and when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilation, and a fall in blood pressure

Baroreceptors in the carotid sinus

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The external carotid artery extended upward along the side of the neck and head and branches to form this artery that pulsates vigorously when persons have a headache

Superficial temporal artery

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Name 4 vessels that supply blood to the cranium

Internal carotid artery, vertebral arteries, basilar artery, and the circle of Willis

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These arteries emerge from the subclavian artery and traveled through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum, where they merge to form the:

Vertebral arteries merge to form the basilar artery

100

An important anastomosis of arteries around the sella turcica. Name its function.

The circle of Willis equalize blood pressure in the brain and can provide collateral channels should one vessel become blocked

101

Blood flow to the circle of Willis is contributed by the inflow of blood from branches of what 2 arteries?

Vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries

102

The aortic arch curves and project inferiorly as this artery that extends several branches to supply thoracic organs and the thoracic wall. Name three organs that it supplies blood to.

The descending thoracic aorta branches to supply blood the lungs, esophagus, and diaphragm.

103

The bronchi, bronchioles, and connective tissue of the lungs are supplied by three or four small arteries that emerge as tiny branches from the anterior wall of the descending thoracic aorta

Bronchial arteries (part of systemic circulation)

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Several small arteries emerge from the anterior wall of the descending thoracic aorta and supply the esophagus

esophageal arteries

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Supplies arterial blood to the abdominal portion of the esophagus

Left gastric artery

106

Arterial blood is supplied to the diaphragm by which three paired vessels and where do they arise/emerge from?

Superior phrenic arteries (descending thoracic aorta), musculophrenic arteries (branches of subclavian arteries), and inferior phrenic arteries (descending abdominal aorta).

107

When the descending thoracic aorta extends inferior to the diaphragm, it is renamed and extended branches to supply the abdominal wall and organs

Descending abdominal aorta

108

Name the three UNPAIRED arteries that you emerge from the anterior wall of the descending abdominal aorta to supply the G.I. tract

Celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, and inferior mesenteric artery

109

Which branch of the descending abdominal aorta is surrounded by the largest autonomic nerve plexus. Name the three branches that emerge from this arterial trunk.

The celiac trunk, located immediately inferior to the aortic opening through the diaphragm, is surrounded by the celiac plexus, or solar plexus. The left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery all emerge from this arterial trunk.

110

Supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach and extends some branches to the esophagus

Left gastric artery

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Supplies the spleen, part of the stomach, And the pancreas

Splenic artery

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Supplies the liver, gallbladder, part of the stomach, the duodenum, And the pancreas

Common hepatic artery

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Name the sources of arterial blood to the pancreas

Splenic artery, Common hepatic artery, And superior mesenteric artery

114

Located immediately inferior to the celiac trunk. Supplies most of the small intestine (excluding duodenum), the pancreas, and the proximal portion of the large intestine

Superior mesenteric artery

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The most inferior of the three unpaired arteries that arise from the descending abdominal aorta. Emerges from the aorta at about the level of the L3 and supplies part of the transverse colon, part of the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum.

Interior mesenteric artery

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Name the three PAIRED arterial branches that emerge from the sides of the descending abdominal aorta.

Middle suprarenal arteries, Renal arteries, and gonadal arteries

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Supplies each adrenal gland with arterial blood

Middle suprarenal arteries

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Supplies arterial blood to each kidney

Renal arteries

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Supplies arterial blood to each gonad (testes in males, ovaries in females)

Gonadal arteries

120

At the level of L4 the descending abdominal aorta bifurcates into:

The left common iliac artery and right common iliac artery

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Each common iliac artery further divides into what? What did they supply?

Internal iliac artery (pelvic and perineal structures) and external iliac artery (lower limb)

122

Where does the diameter of the descending abdominal aorta diminish and contain lesser amounts of elastin than the thoracic aorta?

As it nears the bifurcation to form the iliac arteries

123

How is blood flow through the upper limb and lower limb similar?

Supplied by a main arterial vessel which bifurcates at the elbow/knee, arterial and venous arches in hand/Foot, superficial and deep networks of veins

124

Main arterial vessels of the upper limb. Where did they emerge?

Left subclavian artery (directly from aortic arch) and right subclavian artery (division of brachiocephalic trunk)

125

After the subclavian artery passes over the lateral border of this landmark, what is it renamed?

First rib, axillary artery

126

When the axillary artery passes the inferior border of this muscle what is it renamed?

Teres major muscle, brachial artery

127

This artery travel along the medial side of humerus, and is often use to monitor blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope. Branches of this artery supply blood to most of the brachial muscles

Brachial artery

128

At this landmark, the brachial artery divides into what two arteries? Where did they travel?

Cubital fossa, ulnar artery (medial side of forearm) and radial artery (lateral side of forearm)

129

Hospital workers often use this artery in the lateral wrist for collecting arterial blood for blood gas analysis in hospitalized patients

Radial artery

130

Both the ulnar and radial arteries supply the muscles and structures the forearm and wrist before they do what?

Anastomose and form two arches in the palm

131

Name the two arches in the palm and which artery primarily formed them

Superficial Palmar Arch (ulnar artery) and Deep Palmar Arch (Radial artery)

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Emerge from the arches in the palm to supply arterial blood to the fingers

Digital arteries

133

What is the source of bleeding in a pelvic fracture? How can it be controlled?

The internal iliac artery, controlled by realignment of bones

134

A sign of what disease was found at the left contour of the aortic bifurcation in the Iceman? What artery was hit by the fatal arrow?

Atherosclerosis, left subclavian artery

135

Einstein died of this

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

136

The main arterial supply for the lower limb

External iliac artery

137

The external iliac artery travels inferior to this landmark, where it is renamed what?

The inguinal ligament, femoral artery

138

The femoral artery initially passes through what area on the upper medial portion of the thigh? What is significant about this area?

The femoral triangle, it is an arterial pressure point, may obtain blood samples for arterial blood gases, and can palpate the femoral artery.

139

Emerges from the femoral artery to supply the hip joint and many of the thigh muscles

Deep femoral artery

140

The femoral artery passes into this region where it is renamed what? What structures does it supply?

Region behind the knee, popliteal artery, the knee joint and muscles in this region

141

The popliteal artery divides into what? What do they supply?

anterior tibial artery (anterior compartment of the leg) and posterior tibial artery (posterior compartment)

142

The posterior tibial artery extends a branch called what? What does it supply?

Fibular artery (lateral compartment)

143

The posterior tibial artery continues on the plantar side of the foot where branches into what?

Medial plantar artery and lateral plantar artery

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The anterior tibial artery crosses over the anterior side of the ankle where is renamed what?

The dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal pedal artery)

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The most distal portion of the circulatory system

Dorsal pedal artery

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Palpation of this can provide information about circulation of the foot and in general

Dorsal pedal artery

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The dorsalis pedis artery and a branch of the lateral plantar artery unite to form:

Plantar arch of the foot

148

Extends from the plantar arch and supply the toes

Digital arteries