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Flashcards in Exam 4 HEART pt2 Deck (76):


Pregnant women have better blood return through the inferior vena cava if they sleep on their____ side.  This keeps the heavy fetus and uterus from compressing the inferior vena cava.



If the fossa ovalis fails to close immediately after birth, it is called a 

patent foramen ovale”, “perforated fossa ovalis”, or an “atrial septal defect”.


consists of the chambers on the left side of the heart (left atrium and left ventricle) and all the named blood vessels  that carry blood to the tissues (arteries) and all the named blood vessels that return the blood from the tissues (veins) back to the right atrium of the heart.  The tissue capillaries are included.

systemic circulation


consists of the right side of the heart (right atrium and right ventricle), the pulmonary arteries, which convey poorly oxygenated blood to the lungs, and the pulmonary veins, which convey oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

pulmonary circulation


is when two or more arteries, or two or more veins, merge to supply the same region.



Some arteries do not form anastomoses; in these so-called _________, there is only one pathway through which blood can reach and organ

end arteries


Often an artery will travel with a corresponding vein, both of which service the same body region

Such vessels are called companion vessels 


The tunica intima is composed of endothelium and a subendothelial layer made up of a thin layer of connective tissue.  The tunica intima in veins has one-way valves.  This is not seen in arteries


The walls of arteries are thicker than the walls of veins because of a thicker tunica media.  This enable vasoconstriction and vasodilation in both arteries and veins


The tunica externa is the outermost layer of a blood vessel.  It is composed of connective tissue that contains elastic and collagen fibers.  Veins have a thicker tunica externa than arteries.


Arteries tend to have more elastic and collagen fibers in all their tunics, which means that arterial walls remain open (patent) and can spring back to shape.  In contrast, vein walls tend to collapse if there is no blood in them.


_______________  contain only the tunica intima, but this layer consists of a basement membrane and endothelium only.  This allows for easy exchange of materials between the capillary blood and the fluid surrounding the tissue cells 



perform the most important role of the circulatory system: delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of wastes




Normal RBCs need to _____________ to slip through capillaries


are the largest arteries.  They have elastic fibers throughout all three tunics.  This allows these arteries to bulge when the heart ejects blood into them, and then recoil when the heart relaxes. An example is the aorta

elastic arteries


Blood in the arteries is propelled forward during systole of the heart and also continues forward during diastole because of the _____________  of the arterial walls.

elastic recoil


are medium sized vessels, with elastic fibers confined between the tunica media and tunica externa.  They have a thick tunica media with multiple layers of smooth muscle, giving them better ability to vasoconstrict or vasodilate.  Most of the named arteries are muscular arteries.

muscular arteries


are the smallest arteries.  They have fewer layers of smooth muscle in their tunica media.  By vasoconstricting or vasodilating the arterioles can increase or decease the arterial blood pressure and also regulate blood flow through the capillaries



_______________ is caused by the inheritance of a gene for an abnormal type of hemoglobin called “hemoglobin-S”.  This abnormal hemoglobin causes the RBCs to be rigid and take on a sickle shape

Sickle-cell disease


Sickle cells cause blockages (infarcts) and the cells also break, causing anemia (sickle cell anemia)


Every cell in the body is close to a capillary and capillaries are surrounded by

interstitial fluid


___________ are the most common type of capillary.  The endothelial cells form a complete, continuous lining and are connected by tight junctions.

Continuous capillaries


_____________ have fenestrations within each endothelial cell and are seen where a great deal of fluid transport occurs between the blood and the tissues (intestines, endocrine glands, and kidneys).

Fenestrated capillaries


have walls that are thinner than arteries, they typically carry deoxygenated blood (except for pulmonary veins), they have lower internal pressure



________ are the smallest veins and drain capillaries.  Venules merge to form veins.  Eventually these veins merge to form the ____________ which deliver blood to the chambers of the heart.


great veins


When nearby skeletal muscles contract the blood is propelled forward 

skeletal muscle pump


The _________________for blood circulation occurs when we inhale and  exhale, which causes alternating pressure changes in the chest. 

“respiratory (breathing) pump”



Blood has a tendency to pool in the leg veins when persons are inactive (bedridden).  This can lead to

stationary clots (thrombi)

and moving clots (emboli)


The left and right coronary arteries exit the ascending aorta.........

immediately past the aortic semilunar valve.


____________  normally gives rise to three major arteries: brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, and left subclavian.

The aortic arch


The aortic arch gives rise to

the brachiocephalic trunk

the left common carotid artery

and the left subclavian artery


______________   is firmly attached to posterior body wall. The aortic arch and the heavy heart are not.

The thoracic aorta


A sudden deceleration can pull the heavy heart off the aortic arch resulting in the victim being

“dead right there” (DRT).


Chest trauma or high blood pressure may cause a tear between the tunica intima and tunica media called:

aortic dissection 

This tear may painfully spread!


The common carotid (Latin for “sleep” or “stupor”) arteries branches into the

internal and external carotid arteries.


the most reliable site for detecting the pulse

The common carotid pulse (palpated on just one side of the neck, NOT both simultaneously)


Compressing both common carotid arteries and restricting blood flow to the brain can lead to

unconsciousness and possibly death!



The carotid sinus has



bring blood to the side of the neck and to the skin and muscles  of the head.

The left and right external carotid arteries


often pulsates vigorously when I have a headache (which occurs rarely now that I am decaffeinated).

The superficial (anterior) temporal artery


forms many branches after it enters the cranium via the carotid canal.

The internal carotid artery


travel up the transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae and through the foramen magnum to bring blood to the brain.

The left and right vertebral arteries


these arteries merge to form the basilar artery

The left and right vertebral arteries


receives blood from the internal carotids and the vertebral arteries

Circle of Willis (cerebral arterial circle)





all bring blood to the Circle of Willis near the sella turcica.  It is an important anastomosis.

The left and right internal carotid arteries and the left and right vertebral arteries (which merge to form the basilar artery),


The aortic arch curves and projects inferiorly as the “descending thoracic aorta”  that extends several branches to supply thoracic organs and the thoracic wall.  It becomes the

“descending abdominal aorta” when it penetrates past the diaphragm.


the Iceman’s cause of death by an arrowhead lacerating among others the left subclavian artery and leading to a deadly hemorrhagic shock can be now postulated with almost complete certainty





Arterial blood is supplied to the diaphragm by the______________ that arise from the descending thoracic aorta, the_______________ that arise from the subclavian arteries, and the _______________  that arise from the descending abdominal aorta.

superior phrenic arteries

musculophrenic arteries

inferior phrenic arteries



The ______________  penetrates the diaphragm to become the____________

descending thoracic aorta

descending abdominal aorta


emerge from the anterior wall of the descending abdominal aorta to supply the gastrointestinal tract.

Three unpaired arteries

(superior mesenteric artery)

(inferior mesenteric artery)

(celiac artery)


_____________  serves the pancreas, most of the small intestine (except for a portion of the duodenum), and the proximal portion of the large intestine.

Superior mesenteric artery




_______________ serves part of the transverse colon, part of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum.

The inferior mesenteric artery


The ___________ also gives rise to the middle suprarenal, renal, and gonadal arteries

descending abdominal aorta


The primary arterial supply to the pelvis and perineum is from the

internal iliac arteries, one of the main branches of the common iliac arteries.


The ________________ branches off the brachiocephalic trunk.  The ______________ branches directly off the left portion of the aortic arch.  Both subclavian arteries take blood to the upper extremities.

right subclavian artery

left subclavian artery


The ulnar and radial arteries anastomose to form the _____________  and the _____________ .  Digital arteries emerge from these arches to supply the fingers.

superficial palmar arch

deep palmar arch


The common iliac arteries divide into the _______________(which serve the pelvis and gluteal region) and the _____________ (which head towards the legs).

internal iliac arteries

external iliac arteries


The external iliac artery become the ______________ after it passes deep to the inguinal ligament.

femoral artery


The ______________, which is easily noticeable on the surface, extends from the anterior superior iliac spine to the symphysis pubis.

inguinal ligament


The ______________  gives rise to several arteries, including the deep femoral artery which passes posteriorly to serve the hamstrings muscles.  Behind the knee the femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery.

femoral artery


The popliteal artery, after it passes behind the knee,  branches to become the _______________  and the _______________ .  The posterior tibial artery goes on to form the__________________

anterior tibial artery

posterior tibial artery

medial and lateral plantar arteries


The anterior tibial artery goes on to form the________________ , which is the most distal location to palpate the pulse

dorsal pedal artery

(dorsalis pedis artery)


The veins inferior to the diaphragm merge to collectively form the____________ , which has the largest diameter of any vessel in the body.  The inferior vena cava, which has relatively thin walls, lies to the right side of the descending abdominal aorta.

inferior vena cava


Pregnant women have better blood return through the inferior vena cava if they sleep on their____ side.  This keeps the heavy fetus and uterus from compressing the inferior vena cava.



The ______________ is formed by the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins.  Large veins, such as the vena cavae, lack the one-way valves seen in smaller veins.  Forward blood flow is due to the decreased cross-sectional area as all the smaller veins merge to eventually form the vena cavae thereby increasing blood pressure and blood flow.

superior vena cava