Flashcards in Digestive System #2 Deck (57):
They are part of the mucosal and submucosal tunics of the small intestine and aid in absorption of food. They act like speed bumps for chyme and can be seen by the naked eye.
Circular folds (Plicae Circularis)
They are a part of the circular folds. They help increase surface area for absorption and secretion.
They are the smallest villi on the circular folds. They form the Brush Border of the small intestine.
They are a problem that often follows abdominal surgery or infection called Peritonitis. They are spider web like connections of the intestines.
Adhesions of the GI tract
It is increased pressure in the sigmoid colon. It causes constipation and gas. it is the presence of out-pocketings of intestinal wals known as diverticula
It is inflammation of the epiploic appendages. It is a self-correcting problem and causes nausea and vomiting.
They are ridges within the anus that stop your feces from coming out when passing gas.
They are small depressions between the anal columns. They secrete mucin during defecation to lubricate the anal canal.
They are considered one sphincter because they are connected. It is then the last sphincter of the GI tract.
Internal and External Anal Sphincter
It is also called the ligamentum teres. It is a remnant of the umbilical vein
Round Ligament of the Liver
It is a remnant of the fetal ductus venosus. It is along the inferior surface of the liver.
It is a branch of the celiac trunk, carries well-oxygenated blood and supplies the remaining blood to the liver.
Hepatic Artery Proper
It carries blood from the capillaries of the GI tract, spleen, and pancreas and provides about 75% of the blood volume to the liver. This blood is rich in nutrients but is poor in oxygen.
Hepatic Portal Vein
They are composed of branches of the hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, and hepatic duct.
They are the structural and functional units of the liver. Within these are liver cells called hepatocytes. The center of these are Central Veins that drain into the inferior vena cava.
It is located on the inferior portion of the liver. This allows the hepatic artery proper, common hepatic duct, hepatic portal vein, lymph vessels, and nerves to enter the liver.
They phagocytize debris in the blood as well as help break down and recycle components of aged erythrocytes. They are found within in the hepatic sinusoids.
Reticuloendothelial Celss (Kupffer cells)
Increased blood pressure because blood can't go through the liver.
Hepatic Portal Hypertension
When blood finds an alternate route to the heart because of liver damage.
When the blood finds an alternate route and goes through the esophageal veins. It is also known as a chronic GI bleeder. Since they lose blood, they in turn lose iron.
Esophageal Varicose veins
They are thin-walled and leaky capillaries where venous and arterial blood and mixed and then flow slowly toward the central vein. They are the spokes
It connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct.
They are found within hepatic lobules and help produce the bile. That bile is then secreted and stored in the Gall bladder.
This organ is retropertioneal and exhibits both endocrine and exocrine functions. It produces insulin and glucagon. It secretes digestive enzymes into the dudenum called Pancreatic Juices. It touches the spleen.
It is a sphincter that allows the passage of the pancreatic secretions to neutralize the acidic chyme in the duodenum. It allows bile from the common bile duct to be secreted as well.
Sphincter of Oddi
It is where the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct merge and pierce the duodenal wall. This bile then exits the sphincter of oddi.
It is the combinations of the cystic duct of the gallbladder and common hepatic duct.
Common bile duct
It is a network of thin ducts that carry bile from the liver and the gallbladder to the duodenum.
They are cells within the intestine that drive a steady rhythm along with intestinal contractions. The loss of these cells could lead to intestinal disabilities.
Intestinal Cells of Cajal
It is a brown pigment that shows up in our cells when we age.
It is a genetic condition that causes the liver to accumulate too much iron. It is easily treatable if caught early by removing a pint of blood periodically.
inflammation of the appendix. most cases occur due to fecal matter obstructing the appendix. tissue walls inflame and appendix swells. early stages cause smooth muscle wall to spasm, and pain is referred to the T10 dermatome around the umbilicus. parietal peritoneum becomes inflamed as well and pain becomes sharp and localized to RLQ. may be resolved with antibiotics. if not, must be surgically removed.
appendicitis (surgically removed in a procedure called an appendectomy)
burst appendix may spew its contents into the peritoneum causing a massive infection
infection or inflammation of the diverticula
second most common type of cancer in US. refers to a malignant growth anywhere along the intestine (colon) or rectum. majority in distal descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. typically arise from polyps. prognosis poor for cancers that spread into deeper colon wall tunis or metastasized to lymph nodes.
outgrowths from the colon mucosa
checks for presence of blood in stools
fecal occult blood test
endoscope inserted into rectum and sigmoid colon to check for polyps or cancer
endoscope inserted into large intestine as least up to the right colic flexure and sometimes as far proximally as the ileocecal valve
results when hepatocytes have been destroyed and are replaced by fibrous scar tissue, often surrounding isolated nodules of regenerating hepatocytes. hepatic portal hypertension is also seen. can also be caused by some inherited diseases, chronic biliary obstruction, and biliary cirrhosis. fibrosis and scarring of liver cirrhosis are irreversible.
long-term inflammation of the liver that leads to necrosis of liver tissue. most frequently caused by hepatitis B or hepatitis C (viral infections).
complications of advanced liver cirrhosis
jaundice, edema, ascites, intense itching when bile products are deposited in skin, toxin in blood and brain accumulate, esophageal varices
yellowing of skin and sclerae of eyes when liver's ability to eliminate bilirubin is impaired
accumulation of fluid in tissues, is evident due to reduced formation and release of albumin
fluid accumulation in the abdomen develops because of decreased albumin production
scar tissue in liver compresses both the blood vessels the Hepatic Portal venous system causing increase in blood pressure
Hepatic Portal Hypertension
high concentration of certain materials in bile can lead to eventual formation of these. typically formed from condensations of cholesterol or calcium and bile salts.
refers to the presence of gallstones in either the gall bladder or the biliary apparatus.
gallstones lodged in neck of cystic duct causes gallbladder to become inflamed and dilated. symptoms worse after eating a fatty meal. treatment consists of surgical removal
severe pain from cholecystitis
biliary colic. perceived in right hypochondriac region or right shoulder.
surgical removal of gallbladder. although liver continues to produce bile in the absence of the gallbladder, there is no means of concentrating it so further gallstones are unlikely
autoimmune disorder of small intestine. runs in families. triggered after surgery, pregnancy, or viral infection. cannot tolerate protein gluten found in wheat ry and barley. if ingested, immune system attack small intestine mucosa and damage villi, severely impairing nutrient absorption. can cause weightloss due to malnutrition
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) apples to these two autoimmune disorders where selective regions of the intestine become inflamed
Crohn disease and Ulcerative Colitis
young adults experience intermittent and relapsing episodes of intense abdominal cramping and diarrhea. distal ileum is most frequently and severely affected site. inflammation involves entire thickness of intestinal wall, from mucosa to serosa.
age distribution adn symptoms similar to Crohn disease, but only involves large intestine. rectum and descending colon first to show signs of inflammation and are most severely affected. inflammation confined to mucosa. associated with profoundly increased risk of colon cancer.