Digestive System #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive System #1 Deck (50):
1

Another name for GI tract

Alimentary canal

2

Digestive organs

Oral cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine

3

Accessory Digestive Organs

Teeth
Tongue
Salivary glands
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas

4

The physical breakdown of ingested materials.

Mechanical Digestion

5

The breaking down of ingested molecules into smaller molecules by using enzymes.

Chemical Digestion

6

Two types of movement in Alimentary Canal

Peristalsis and Segmentation

7

It is the process of muscular contraction that forms ripples along part of the GI tract. It starts in the esophagus.

Peristalsis

8

It is the churning and mixing movements in the small intestine which help dispense the material being digested and combining it with intestinal secretions.

Segmentation

9

It means dregs.

Feces

10

It is the injecting of food directly into a vein and is very expensive.

Hyperalimentation

11

It is the space between the cheeks or lips and the gums. This is where a person places chewing tobacco in the mouth.

Vestibule of Oral cavity

12

It lies central to the alveolar processes of the mandible and maxillae

Oral Cavity Proper

13

Why are lips more red?

They have an abundant supply of superficial blood vessels and the reduced amount of keratin within their outer skin.

14

It is the tether that is found medially at the upper and lower lips inside the mouth.

Labial Frenulum

15

They are friction ridges that are found at the roof of the mouth caused by the hard palate.

Transverse Palatine Folds

16

It is the tether underneath the tongue

Lingual Frenulum

17

It is an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starch into maltose which also contains lysozyme (inhibits bacterial activity).

Amylase

18

They are the largest salivary glands. Its duct empties near the second upper molar in the vestibule of oral cavity. When swollen, it is associated with mumps and can lead to problems with the testes. What is it innervated by?

Parotid gland. It is innervated by CN IX: Glossopharangeal

19

They are found inferior to the mandible. This duct empties to the lateral sides of the lingual frenulum. These are the squirters of gleeking. What are they innervated by?

Submandibular glands. It is innervated by CN VII: Facial

20

They are inferior to the tongue and empty out into many ducts. Innervation?

Sublingual glands. It is innervated by CN Vii: Facial

21

They are also called milk teeth or baby teeth.

Deciduous Teeth

22

Number of types of Teeth per quadrant

2 incisors
1 canine (eye teeth)
2 Premolars (bicuspids)
3 Molars

23

Superior, Middle, and Inferior Pharyngeal constrictors. As these muscles work the epiglottis of the larynx closes over the laryngeal opening. Innervation?

Pharyngeal Muscles. CN X: Vagus nerves innervates most of the pharyngeal muscles.

24

Intraperitoneal Organs

Stomach
Jejunum
Ileum
Cecum
Appendix
Transverse colon
Sigmoid Colon

25

Retroperitoneal Organs

Kidneys
Pancreas
Duodenum
Ascending Colon
Descending Colon
Rectum
Bladder

26

They are double layered folds of the peritoneum that support and stabilize the intraperitoneal GI tract organs. Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels are sandwiched between the two layers.

Mesenteries

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Name the 5 types of Mesenteries

Greater Omentum
Lesser Omentum
Mesentery Proper
Mesecolon
Peritoneal Ligament

28

extends inf. like an apron. Covers most abdominal organs

Greater Omentum

29

Connects the curvature of stomach to duodenum

Lesser Omentum

30

Fan-shpaed fold that suspends the small intestine

Mesentery Proper

31

attaches parts of large intestine to post. abdominal wall.

Mesecolon

32

A type of mesentery that attaches one organ to another or lateral abdominal wall.

Peritoneal Ligament

33

Name the Tunics of the GI tract from deep to superficial

Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, Adventitia or Serosa

34

also mucous membrane that has absorptive and secretory functions.

Mucosa

35

It is dense irregular connective tissue which contains nerve plexuses, large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, and mucin-secreting glands.

Submucosa

36

Contains two layers: inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer. It is responsible for peristalsis and segmentation. The inner circular layer can be thickened and become a Sphincter.

Muscularis

37

Adventitia or Serosa

Retroperitoneal organs have Adventitia but Intraperitoneal organs have Serosa.

38

It is the inferior region of the esophagus that connects to the stomach by passing through an opening in the diaphragm. It is involved in Gastroesophageal Reflux

Esophageal Hiatus

39

Most absorption of food occurs here.

Jejunum

40

Gastroesophageal reflux

It can be caused by cigarettes, caffeine, chocolate, tomatoes, and peppermint. The baby in the article had this because the mother drank a root beer that contained caffeine. The baby experienced abnormal breathing in supine position.

41

acidic chyme refluxes into esophagus, causing burning pain and irritation. most common in smokers, obesity, just eaten large meal, and have hiatal hernias.

reflux esophagitis

42

portion of stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity

hiatal hernia

43

chronic reflux esophagitis lead to a condition where frequent gastric reflux erodes esophageal tissue. scar tissue builds up, narrowing the esophageal lumen.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

44

the change from one type of cell to another

metaplasia

45

in advanced cases, of GERD, esophageal epithelium may change from stratified squamous to a simple columnar epithelium. this metaplasia increases the risk of cancerous growths.

Barratt esophagus

46

chronic, solitary erosion of a portion of the lining of either the stomach or the duodenum

peptic ulcer

47

peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach

gastric ulcers

48

peptic ulcers in the superior part of the duodenum

duodenal ulcers

49

ulcer erode the entire organ wall. medical emergency

perforation

50

irritation of the gastric mucosa. NSAIDS are common cause. Helicobacter pylori bacterium is present in 70% or gastric ulcer cases and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. leukocytes that destroy the bacteria, destroy the mucous neck cells further irritating the stomach lining and creating an ideal environment for continued h. pylori colonization.

gastritis