Flashcards in Appendicular Muscles Deck (136):
What muscles control the movements of the upper and lower limbs; stabilize and control the movements of the pectoral and pelvic girdles; and are organized into groups based on their location in the body or the part of the skeleton they move?
Do appendicular muscles act independently, in synergistic groups, or antagonistic groups?
they may act in any of those manners
Where do muscles of the pectoral girdle originate? Where do they insert? How do they relate to the scapula?
insert= clavicle and scapula
These muscles both stabilize the scapula and move it to increase the arm's angle of movements.
How are the muscles that move the pectoral girdle classified?
According to their location in the thorax as either anterior or posterior thoracic muscles.
Name the two anterior thoracic muscles.
the "pectoralis minor" and the " serratus anterior"
what is Latin for "lesser chest"?
What muscle is contracting when your shoulders are hunched forward?
your pectoralis minor
Which muscle's name is derived from the saw-toothed appearance of its origins?
the "serratus anterior" (think of a serrated knife)
What is the serratus anterior muscle passionate about in life?
it's job as the "prime mover" in scapular protraction
Name the three posterior thoracic muscles.
the "rhomboid major", "rhomboid minor", and "trapezius"
What muscles are parallel bands that run inferolaterally from the vertebrae to the scapula (between the shoulder blades), and act as antagonists to the serratus anterior and pectoralis minor?
the rhomboid muscles ("rub my rhomboids")
Are any of the posterior or anterior thoracic muscles visible?
Yes, both the trapezius (posterior throacic muscle) and serratus anterior (anterior thoracic muscle) are visible.
What is Latin for "greater/lesser oblique parallelogram-shaped"?
What is Greek for an "irregular four-sided figure"?
What is the large, flat, diamond-shaped muscle that extends from the skull and vertebral column to the pectoral girdle laterally?
How are the muscles that move the glenohumeral join/arm classified?
According to the location of their origin; those that originate on the axial skeleton, and those that originate on the scapula.
What does the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major have in common?
They are muscles that move the glenohumeral joint/arm that originate on the axial skeleton.
What do the deltoid, coracobrachialis, teres major, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor have in common?
They are muscles that move the glenohumeral joint/arm that originate on the scapula.
What muscle is the prime arm extensor?
the latissimus dorsi
What is often referred to as the "swimmer's muscle"?
the latissimus dorsi
Is it true that if you swim more laps, you get huge 'lats'?
Yes! It's also true that your wife is a genius and smoking hot. The "dorsal" thing was pretty good too....I just don't like having my thunder stolen.
What is Latin for "widest" and "back"?
What is the name for the large, thick, fan-shaped muscle that covers the superior part of the thorax?
the "pectoralis major"
What is Latin for "greater chest"?
Which muscle acts as the prime mover of arm flexion?
What thick powerful muscle functions as the prime abductor of the arm and works as part of a third class lever system?
What muscle forms the rounded contour of the shoulder?
What surgical procedure may result in encapsulation, an immune response which produces a white, sandy capsule at the site? What muscle is used in this procedure and why?
Breast augmentation through use of silicon or saline-filled implants. The implants are placed within a "pouch" under the pectoralis major, which provides more stability than simply placing them between breast tissue and muscle.
What does encapsulation lead to and why is it somewhat ironic?
It leads to breast distortion, which is opposite to the intent of the cosmetic surgery. Them hoes should have been happy with their boobies in the first place.
This muscle works as a synergist to the pectoralis major in flexing and adducting the arm.
coracobrachialis. (coraco- because it originates on the coracoid process of the scapula)
What muscle works synergistically with the latissimus dorsi by extending, adduction, and medially rotating the arm? (Latin for "round" and "greater")
the "teres major"
What four muscles provide strength and stability for the glenohumeral joint? What are they collectively termed?
the "rotator cuff" muscles include the:
What rotator cuff muscle do you use when you wind up to pitch a baseball?
the "subscapularis" medially rotates the arm
What rotator cuff muscle is located on the anterior surface of the scapula (between the scapula and the ribs)?
What rotator cuff muscle is located superior to the scapular spine?
What rotator cuff muscle do you use when you start to execute a pitch of a baseball?
the "supraspinatus" abducts the arm
What rotator cuff muscle is located inferior to the scapular spine?
What rotator cuff muscle do you use when you slow down your arm after pitching a baseball?
the "infraspinatus" adducts and laterally rotates the arm
What rotator cuff muscle is located inferior to the muscle that is inferior to the scapular spine?
the "teres minor" is inferior to the infraspinatus
What rotator cuff muscle is synergistic to the infraspinatus?
the "teres minor" also adducts and laterally rotates the arm
Why are the terms "flexing the elbow joint" and "flexing the forearm" synonymous?
Because when you move the elbow joint, you move the bones of the forearm.
How are the muscles in the limbs organized?
by "compartments" which are surrounded by deep fascia
What is housed in each compartment?
functionally related skeletal muscles, along with their associated nerves and blood vessels
The muscles in the arm are divided into what 2 compartments?
the "anterior (flexor) compartment" and the "posterior (extensor) compartment"
What compartment contains the muscles primarily used for flexing your elbow/forearm?
the "anterior (flexor) compartment"
What compartment contains the muscles used for extending your elbow/forearm?
the "posterior (extensor) compartment"
What is the large, two-headed muscle on the anterior surface of the humerus, that acts as the main flexor of the anterior compartment?
the "biceps brachii"
What muscle is a powerful supinator of the forearm, and is used when you tighten a screw with your right hand?
the biceps brachii
Why can the biceps brachii help flex the humerus (although only weakly)?
because the tendon of the long head crosses the glenohumeral joint
What class of lever is the triceps brachii?
first class lever
What is the large, three-headed muscle on the posterior surface of the arm, that acts as the main/prime extensor of the elbow joint?
the "triceps brachii"
What muscle is antagonistic to the biceps brachii?
the triceps brachii
Why can the triceps brachii help extend the humerus?
because the long head of the triceps brachii crosses the glenohumeral joint
Why are the forearm muscles called the "extrinsic muscles of the wrist and hand"?
Because these muscles move the wrist joint, hand, and fingers, yet they originate on the forearm (not the wrist or hand).
Name the muscles in the phalanges of the manus.
muahahaha TRICK!!! there are NO muscles in the fingers!
Oh Heidi, you are sooo tricky...but if there are no muscles in the fingers then how are they moved??
by flexors and extensors originating in the forearm or palm, you silly goose
What partitions the forearm muscles into their anterior or posterior compartments?
deep fascia, same as the compartments of the brachium (upper arm)
Where do most of the anterior compartment muscles (of the forearm) originate?
on the medial epicondyle of the humerus via a common flexor tendon
Muscles in which compartment of the forearm tend to flex the wrist, metacarpal joints, and/or interphalangeal joints of the fingers?
the anterior (flexor) compartment
Where do most of the posterior compartment muscles (of the forearm) originate?
on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus via a common extensor tendon
Muscles in which compartment of the forearm tend to extend the wrist, metacarpal joints, and/or interphalangeal joints of the fingers?
the posterior (extensor) compartment
What typically surrounds the tendons of the forearm muscles? What holds them in their place (adjacent to the skeletal elements)?
surrounded by tendon (synovial) sheaths and held in place by strong fascial structures
At the wrist, the deep fascia of the forearm forms thickened, fibrous bands. What is the term for these bands?
The retinacula help hold the tendons close to the bone, preventing the tendons from what?
This covers the palmar (anterior) surface of the carpal bones.
the "flexor retinaculum"
Flexor tendons of the digits and a certain nerve pass through this tight space between the bones and the flexor retinacula.
flexor tendons and the "median nerve" pass through the "carpal tunnel"
During crucifixion, what major structures are damaged by the nail being driven through the arm?
the median nerve and the flexor retinaculum
What can drooping your wrist while playing the piano lead to?
carpal tunnel syndrome
This covers the dorsal (posterior) surface of the carpal bones.
the "extensor retinaculum"
What passes between the extensor retinaculum and the underlying carpal bones?
extensor tendons of the wrist and digits
What is meant by name of the "intrinsic muscles of the hand"?
they are small muscles, housed entirely within the palm, that both originate and insert on the hand.
What is so cool about the muscles of the lower limb?
they are the most powerful and largest muscles in the body
The deep fascia of the thigh that encircles the thigh muscles like a supportive stocking and tightly binds them.
This partitions the thigh muscles into 4 compartments, each with its own blood and nerve supply.
Name the 4 thigh compartments.
anterior compartment, medial compartment, lateral compartment, and posterior compartment
The muscles from which thigh compartment are responsible for either extending the knee or flexing the thigh?
the anterior thigh compartment
The muscles from which thigh compartment act as adductors of the thigh?
the medial thigh compartment
The muscles from which thigh compartment abducts the thigh?
the lateral thigh compartment
The muscles from which thigh compartment act as both flexors of the knee and extensors of the thigh (some also abduct the thigh)?
the posterior thigh compartment
Where do most of the muscles that act on the thigh originate? insert?
originate on the os coxae (pelvic girdle)
insert on the femur
What is the general function of the muscles that act on the thigh?
to stabilize the highly moveable coxal joint (acetabulofemoral joint) and support the body during standing and walking
What do the "psoas major", "iliacus", "sartorius", and "quadriceps femoris" have in common?
They are muscles of the anterior thigh compartment (thigh flexors)
What two muscles merge to form the "iliopsoas"?
the "psoas major" and "iliacus"
What muscle inserts on the lesser trochanter of the femur to act as a flexor of the thigh?
What is the large internal muscle that extends from the lower spine, passes deep to the inguinal ligament, and merges with another muscle.
the "psoas major" merges with the "iliacus"
What is the longest muscle in the body?
What long, thin muscle crosses over the anterior thigh?
What muscle is designated as the "tailor's muscle"? Why?
the sartorius, because it allows you to sit cross-legged, which is how tailor's use to sit while they worked.
What thigh compartment does only the "gracilis" muscle belong to?
the medial thigh compartment (thigh adductors)
What muscle is Latin for "slender"; responsible for adducting and flexing the thigh; and flexes the the leg?
What thigh compartment does only the "tensor fasciae latae" belong to?
the lateral thigh compartment (thigh abductor)
What is Latin for "to make tense, band, and wide"?
tensor fasciae latae
The ______ muscle abducts the thigh, and attaches to a lateral thickening of the fascia lata, called the _____.
tensor fasciae latae attaches to the "iliotibial tract"
What is synonymous with "iliotibial tract"?
iliotibial band, IT band
The lateral thickening of the fascia lata, which extends from the iliac crest to the lateral condyle of the tibia
the IT band
What do the gluteus maximus, piriformis, and hamstring muscles have in common?
they are muscles of the posterior thigh compartment (thigh extensors)
What is the largest and heaviest gluteal muscle? What role does it play?
the gluteus maximus, which is the chief extensor of the thigh
Where is the group of muscles located that collectively laterally rotate the coxal joint (as when the legs are crossed with one ankle resting on the knee)? Name one of the muscles that belongs to this group.
deep to the gluteus maximus. the piriformis muscle belongs to this group.
What muscle is Latin for "pear-shaped"
If this muscle becomes overly tight, it can put pressure on the longest nerve in the body.
the piriformis can put pressure on the sciatic nerve
What syndrome causes sciatica from a muscle being overly tight?
What do the following muscles have in common? psoas major, iliacus, sartorius, rectus femoris, gracilis, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, piriformis, and hamstring muscle.
They are the muscles that move the coxal joint/thigh
What do the following muscles have in common? quadriceps femoris, sartorius, gracilis, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius
they are the muscles that move the knee joint/lower leg
Which 6 muscles of the lower limb move both the coxal joint/thigh and knee joint/leg?
the sartorius, rectus femoris, gracilis, and hamstrings (3)
What is the most powerful muscle of the body?
the quadriceps femoris
What muscle is the prime mover of knee extension?
the quadriceps femoris
What muscles function synergistically to extend the leg at the knee joint (as in kicking a football)?
the quadriceps femoris
What's the deal with the quadriceps femoris muscle's origins and insertions?
it has 4 separate origins, but a common insertion
Where the quadriceps femoris insertion?
over the patella via the quadriceps tendon
What is so special about the quadriceps tendon?
it is continuous over the patella and becomes the patellar ligament
what attaches to the tibial tuberosity on the proximal anterior region of the tibia?
the patellar ligament, which is the distal end of the quadriceps tendon
What muscle is on the anterior surface of the thigh, and both extends the leg and flexes the thigh?
the rectus femoris
What muscles make up the quadriceps femoris?
What muscle forms the anteriolateral surface of the thigh and extends the leg?
the vastus lateralis
What muscle forms the anteromedial surface of the thigh and extends the leg?
the vastus medialis
What muscle is positioned deep to the rectus femoris, is sandwiched between the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extends the leg?
the vastus intermedius
What muscles make up the hamstrings?
Do the muscles share a common origin or insertion? Where is it?
They have a common origin on the ischial tuberosity
The insertion of which muscle is easily seen and palpated at the lateral margin of the popliteal fossa when the knee is flexed?
The insertion of which muscle is easily seen and palpated at the medial margin of the popliteal fossa when the knee is flexed?
The insertion of which muscle has the most prominent medial lip of the popliteal fossa when the knee is flexed?
What do you call the muscles housed within the leg that move the ankle, foot, and toes.?
The deep fascia partitions the leg musculature into what three compartments?
anterior, lateral, and posterior
The muscles in which leg compartment dorsiflex the foot and/or extend the toes?
What do the anterior (extensor) compartments of the forearm and leg have in common?
they both have extensor retinaculum that hold their tendons tightly against the joint
What leg muscle belongs to the anterior compartment and is the primary dorsiflexor of the foot at the ankle?
What leg muscle belongs to the lateral compartment and is a superficial lateral muscle that covers the fibula?
peroneus (fibularis) longus
Name the 2 leg muscles that belong to the posterior compartment
What are the gastrocnemius and soleus collectively known as? They share a common tendon of insertion, what is it?
triceps surae, insertion=calcaneal (Achilles) tendon
Together, these are the most powerful plantar flexors of the leg.
gastrocnemius and soleus (triceps surae)
What medical procedure may be necessary to relieve severe cases of compartment syndrome?
Name for the muscles that both originate and insert within the foot
Intrinsic muscles of the foot
Function of the intrinsic muscles of the foot
support arches and move toes
plantar surface of the foot is supported by what?
aponeurosis that extends between phalanges of the toes and the calcaneus, also encloses plantar muscles of foot