Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (23):
produced by injecting small amount of radiopaque dye into vein. as it passes through kidneys and is cleared into urine, series of x-rays provide a time-lapse view of urinary system flow. useful in diagnosing renal calculi. if urine flow is normal, entire pathway appears dark on x-ray. if there is a blockage, dark coloration will suddenly stop at the area of the blockage
kidney stone. formed from crystalline minerals built up in kidney. most have calcium with wither oxalate or phosphate. second most common type are struvite stones formed from ammonium and phosphate. frequent UTIs may predispose person to struvite stones
greatly diminished or absent renal function caused by destruction of about 90% of tissue in the kidney. cannont regenerate or begin functioning again. two treatments are dialysis or transplant
to separate agents or particles on the basis of their size. two forms.
catheter is permanently placed in peritoneal cavity to which a bag of dialysis fluid can be attached externally. as fluid enters peritoneal cavity, waste products are transferred from blood into fluid. after several hours, fluid is drained and replaced with fresh fluid
blood is cycled through machine that filters waste products across a specially designed membrane. vascular connection is made between superficial artery and vain called a shunt and is externally accessible. metabolic waste products are removed. must be performed 3-4 times a week, taking 4 hours each.
high level of calcium in the urine leads to calcium stones
presence of renal calculi anywhere along the urinary tract. severe cramping pain along "loin-to-groin" region. epithelium of ureter becomes inflamed as it pushed stone along its path. results in hematuria
blood in the urine
ultrasound or shock waves are directed toward stones to pulverize them into smaller particles that can be expelled in the urine
scope inserted from urethra into bladder and ureter to break up and remove stone
those prone to kidney stones are advised to avoid foods high in oxalates such as...
spinach, swiss chard, sweet potato, and chocolate.
occurs when bacteria, most commonly E.coli, or fungi enter and multiply within urinary tract. women more prone due to shorter urethra that is close to anus.sex and catheters increase risk.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
inflammation of urethra. first to develop in UTI
infection spreds to urinary bladder
untreated UTI bacteria spread up ureters to kidneys
test of the urine that can reveal presence of inflammatory cells, blood, and bacteria or fungi
failure of a kidney to develop.
developing kidney fails to migrate from pelvic cavity to abdominal cavity. receives blood supply from branches on common iliac artery as opposed to branches on aorta. usually normal function and causes not problems
inferior parts of L and R kidneys fuse as they try to ascend from the pelvic cavity into the abdominal cavity. migration is halted as it gets stuck around origin of inferior mesenteric artery. typically asymptomatic and functions normally
extra kidneys that develop from ureteric bud duplication. very rare. typically no clinical significance
supernumerary kidneys. duplicated or bifid ureter travel to single kidney