Cartilage and Bone Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy > Cartilage and Bone Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cartilage and Bone Connective Tissue Deck (80):
1

Another Name for Sutural Bones

Wormian Bones

2

Skeleton means what in Greek?

Dried up

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Sesamoid bones

They are called sesamoid bones because they resemble a sesame seed. They may develop in tendons in response to stress as the tendons repeatedly move across a joint.

4

What is the biggest sesamoid bone in the body?

The patellae (develops in early childhood)

5

What is cartilage?

a semi-rigid connective tissue that is weaker than bone but more flexible and resilient. It contains chondroblasts which mature into chondrocytes.

6

Is Mature cartilage avascular or vascular?

Avascular which means it's not penetrated by blood vessels. This means cartilage doesn't heal well when injured.

7

Bones serve as vital reservoirs for what minerals?

Calcium and phosphate

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3 major functions of Cartilage

1) Supporting soft tissue.
2) Provides a gliding surface at articulations (joints), where two bones meet.
3) Provides a model for the formation of most of the bones in the body. It is a "rough draft."

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3 types of cartilage

Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, and Elastic

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Hyaline cartilage:

(clear cartilage) it is the most abundant. It is found in the nose, trachea, portions of the larynx, the articular cartilage on bones, growth plates in growing bones, and fetal skeleton.

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Fibrocartilage:

It can act as a shock absorber and is located where this property is required, such as the pads of fibrocartilage between the vertebrae and where the pubic bones join at the pubic symphysis. Most durable cartilage. Contains numerous thick collagen fibers.

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Elastic cartilage:

It is found in the external ear, the ear canal, and the epiglottis. It contains highly branched elastic fibers within its extracellular matrix.

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Functions of Bone

1. Support and protection
2. Movement
3. Hemopoiesis
4. Storage of mineral and energy reserves

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Support and protection:

Provides a framework or scaffolding for the entire body.

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Movement:

The skeletal muscles provide the force to move the bones of the body as levers so we can walk, run, and perform delicate movements with our fingers.

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Hemopoiesis:

It is the process of blood cell formation. This is done by stem cells in red bone marrow located in spongy bone. These stem cells form all different kind types of blood cells.

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Storage of mineral and energy reserves:

more than 90% of the body's reserves of minerals calcium and phosphate are stored and released by bone.

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Minerals and fat in the bones

Calcium, Phosphate, and Lipids or adipose tissue

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it is essential for muscle contraction, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission.

Calcium

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is need for ATP utilization ( a substance that momentarily traps useful energy for utilization by the body.

Phosphate

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is stored in the yellow bone marrow which is in the shafts of long bones.

Lipids or adipose tissue

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Types of bones:

Long, Short, Flat, and Irregular

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typically function as levers. These are the bones of the upper extremity and lower extremity.

Long bones

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these are somewhat cube-shaped and act to transfer forces. They are bones of the wrist and ankle. Sesamoid bones are classified as this.

Short bones

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these are broad with a dense surface and serve for muscle attachment or protection of underlying soft tissues. They are the roof of the skull, the shoulder blades, sternum, and ribs.

Flat bones

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these vary in shape and have many surface projections for muscle attachment or articulation. Examples are the vertebrae, ossa coxae (pelvic bones), and several bones of the skull.

Irregular bones

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allows the passage of blood vessels to keep bone alive.

Nutrient Foramen

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The hollow region in your bones.

Medullary Cavity

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A dense layer of vascular connective tissue that covers the bones except at the surface of the joints. This highly vascular layer serves as a place for tendon-muscle attachment and bone is responsible for growth in bone width. Pulling stress on this stimulates osteoblasts which causes bones to increase in width. Lack of stress decreases bone width because of osteoclasts.

Periosteum

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They connect muscles to bone

Tendons

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They connect bones to bones.

Ligaments

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A hormone that is secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells

Erythropoeitin

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Where does hematopoiesis occur?

It occurs within the active red marrow of the adult sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, and proximal ends of the bones of the thighs and upper arms.

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How many cranial bones are there?

8

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How many facial bones?

14

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a membrane that lines the medullary cavity and helps remodel the medullary cavity during bone growth and repair

Endosteum

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It is located in growing children and teenagers. It is composed of hyaline cartilage and has intense mitotic activity that helps bones increase in length.

Epiphyseal Growth Plate

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A growth hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland and is responsible for growth in bone length in the Epiphyseal growth plate.

Somatotropin

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The remnant of the epiphyseal growth plate in adults. It occurs after the Epiphyseal growth plate ossifies.

Epiphyseal line

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4 Types of cells associated with bone connective tissue

Osteoprogenitor Cells, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoclasts

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found in the periosteum and endosteum. They give rise to cells that become osteoblasts.

Osteoprogenitor cells

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secrete the initial semisolid form of bone matrix called osteoid. This osteoid later calcifies and becomes bone.

Osteoblasts

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they develop from osteoblasts. They maintain the bone matrix and detect mechanical stress on a bone. This info is communicated to osteoblasts, and may result in the deposition of new bone matrix at the surface.

Osteocytes

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are large, multinuclear, phagocytic cells and appear to be derived from bone marrow cells similar to monocytes in blood. Their role is to break down bone in a process called Osteolysis.

Osteoclasts

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Leads to formation of flat bones of the skull, zygomatic bones, maxilla, mandible, collar bone, and sesamoid bone (patella).

Intramembranous Ossification

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Most bones form by this method. It is when the cartilage in the body gradually ossifies as one grows older.

Endochondral ossification

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A method of fixing broken bones which looks like a bird cage around the broken limb. It can stimulate osteoblasts to fill in gaps of long bones.

Traction

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2 types of bone connective tissue

Compact bone and Spongy or Cancellous bone

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Compact bone

it is the solid and relatively dense bone. In a long bone, it is the solid external walls of the bone. In flat bones of the skull, compact bone forms both an inner and outer layer.

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Spongy or Cancellous bone

It looks like a sponge and is found in the epiphysis in the long bones. In many flat bones, cancellous bone is sandwiched between compact bones.

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It happens when osteoblasts and blood vessels invade the the center of the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage where bone replaces the cartilage. Most have formed by the 12th week of development.

Primary Ossification Center

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It is the same process of invading osteblasts and blood vessels but in the proximal and distal epiphyses.

Secondary ossification centers

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Important vitamins for bone development

Vitamins A, C, and D

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Vitamin A:

stimulates/activates osteoblasts.

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Vitamin C:

is required for normal synthesis of collagen, the primary organic component in the bone matrix.

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Vitamin D:

stimulates the absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions into the blood for possible storage in the bone.

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a thin break caused by increased physical activity in which bone experiences repetitive loads, such as running.

Stress fracture

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can occur when a bone is weakened by disease.

Pathologic fracture (spontaneous fracture)

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Closed fracture

No break in the skin

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Open fracture

break in surface of the skin, whether by the bone or not.

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Comminuted fracture

bone is splintered in many pieces.

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Spiral fracture

bone is broken with twisting movement causing helical cracking.

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Greenstick fracture

incomplete breaking with bowing.

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Depressed fracture

portion of the bone is driven inward

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Displaced fracture

fragments are out of proper alignment

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Nondisplaced fracture

fragments are in anatomical alignment.

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forms when blood vessels inside the bone and in the periosteum are torn.

Fracture hematoma

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a bridge that connects the gaps of injured bone.

Fibrocartilage callus

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insufficient ossification due to loss of calcium and other minerals.

Osteopenia

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Growth Hormone

somatotropin

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Thyroid Hormone

secreted by thyroid. stimulates bone growth by influencing the basal metabolic rate of bone cells

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Estrogen and Testosterone

dramatically accelerate bone growth at the epiphyseal growth plates

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diaphysis

central shaft of long bone. contains the medullary cavity

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epiphysis

knobby region at each end of long bone composed of an outer layer of compact bone and an inner layer of spongy bone. contains active red marrow in adults. covered in articular cartilage at a joint

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a progressive bone disease in which bone mass and density is decreases and is more susceptible to fracture. It is much more common in women as they age. A poor diet can cause the body to take nutrients from the bones and put them in the blood stream which results in weakened bones.

Osteoporosis

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A bacterial infection of the bone and bone marrow that can develop after a wound or fracture. Smokers who have this will not heal as fast as non-smokers.

Osteomyelitis

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Condyle, Facet, and Head

Articulating surfaces

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Alveolus and Fossa

Depressions

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Crest, Epicondyle, Process, Spine, Trochanter, Tubercle, Tuberosity

Projections for tendon and ligament attachment

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Fissure, Foramen, Sinus

Openings and Spaces