Vessels and Circulation #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vessels and Circulation #2 Deck (79):

It lies deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscles and eventually merges with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic.

Internal Jugular Vein


It is superficial to the sternocleidomastoid muscles and drains into the subclavian vein. Enlargement of this vein can lead to Jugular Vein Distention which is a sign of cardiac tamponade.

External Jugular Vein


They extend through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae and drain into the brachiocephalic veins.

Vertebral Veins


Most of the venous blood of the cranium drains through these veins and then go into the internal jugular veins. They are formed between the two layers of the dura mater and also receive excess CSF.

Dural Venous Sinuses


It receives input from the superior and inferior opthalmic veins that drain the skin in the region around the nose. It is near the sella turcica.

Cavernous Sinus


It is a vein on the posterior body wall just to the right of the vertebral column. This vein receives venous drainage from the lumbar region, sacral region, intercostal muscles, the bronchi, esophagus, and pericardium. It then merges with the superior vena cava.

Azygous Vein


They drain into the azygous system of veins and are in the lungs.

Bronchial veins


These veins drain into the azygous vein or left gastric vein.

Esophageal veins


Diaphragm veins

Superior phrenic veins and inferior phrenic veins which merge with the inferior vena cava. The third is the musculophrenic veins that travel through branches that eventually lead to brachiocephalic.


An area surrounding the nose where the superior and inferior opthalamic veins drain into the cavernous veins. Beware of nose piercings!

Danger triangle


Arteries from the digestive tract drain into the capillaries of the intestines/digestive tract and then go to the capillaries of the liver (which filter the blood and absorb nutrients). Then the blood goes to the hepatic vein to the IVC to the right atrium.

Hepatic Portal System


It receives oxygen poor, but nutrient rich blood from the: 1) intestines 2) Pancreas 3) Spleen 4) stomach 5) Gallbladder

Hepatic portal vein


It is a network of veins that are on the dorsum of the hand. These veins drain into the basilic and cephalic veins.

Dorsal Venous Arch


It is composed of the cephalic vein (lateral side of upper limb) and the basilic vein (medial side of upper limb). It is a common site for venipuncture.

Medial Cubital Vein


It is a network of veins that drains into the great saphenous vein on the medial side of the foot near the medial malleolus.

Dorsal Venous Arch of foot


It is the longest vein in the body and is sometimes removed for use as vascular graft material elsewhere in the body (coronary bypass.)

Great Saphenous Vein


It extends adjacent to the lateral side of the ankle and then travels along the posterior calf, before draining into the popliteal vein.

Small Saphenous vein


Golden Hour

If someone has acute trauma, you need to get them in the OR within 60 minutes.


It is when part of the arterial wall thins and balloons out. The wall is more prone to rupture which can cause massive bleeding and death. Albert Einstein died of this.



The fetus receives oxygen and nutrients directly from the mother via the umbilical cord. It is composed of 1 Umbilical Vein (brings oxygenated blood to the fetus) and 2 Umbilical Arteries (brings blood away from the heart).

Umbilical Vessels


It brings oxygenated blood in to the fetus and is shunted away through the Ductus Venosus and Portal SInus. These vessels are the only fully oxygenated vessels in the fetal circulation. This vein becomes the round ligament of the liver called the ligamentum teres.

Umbilical Vein


It is a detour where the blood is shunted from the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch. It becomes the non-functional ligamentum arteriosum within 10-15 hours after birth and gradually atrophies.

Ductus Arteriosus


It is one of the veins where the umbilicus vein is shunted near the liver and drains into the inferior vena cava. When the baby is born it becomes the ligamentum venosum

Ductus Venosus


They are vessels that take deoxygenated blood away from the baby's heart while in the womb. Once the baby is born they turn into the Medial Umbilical Ligaments.

Umbilical Arteries


To place blood or any other fluid inside a baby after he or she is born you can place it in the umbilical vein. To take blood out you must remove it from the umbilical arteries.

Umbilical Catheter


A lady came in for a routine check-up. She seemed to have an irregular heartbeat. The doctor later found out that he had lost hearing in one of his ears so he thought that he falsely suspected the heart murmur. Later he listened to the heart again and started to trace the sound he was hearing (other doctors told the woman she had a heart problem). What did he find?

He found that she at Arteriorvenous Malformation or AVM in her head.


Complex tangles of abnormal arteries and veins that can be located in almost any organ in the body. They move fast and have a defective layer and prone to rupture and bleed.

Arterioveonous Malformation


How is AVM fixed?

They put a catheter on it and a metallic coil to thread off the feeder vessel. They are now empty vessels.


Patent Foramen Ovale/Atrial Septal Defect/Perforated Fossa Ovalis may cause what condition?

migraines but the mechanism is unclear. PFO's can cause higher rates of decompression sickness in scuba divers. Women are more likely to get migraines but the cause is unknown. Sometimes migraines are preceded by auras, which are imaginary lights, other vision disturbances or numbness on one side of the body.


What can be done to fix migraines in patients with PFO's

PFO closures have been shown to reduce migraines.



liver capillaries that receive blood from hepatic portal vein and hepatic arteries. site where blood mixes


Why is the liver slightly more susceptible to anaerobic bacterial infections than other body tissues?

The reduced oxygen levels from blood mixing in the sinusoids


the "widowmaker"

Left anterior descending artery


Organs and structures of the pelvis and perineum are drained by numerous veins that merge to form? that then drains into the?

internal iliac veins drain into the common iliac veins (L and R common iliac veins merge to form inferior vena cava)


varicose veins

when valves of veins or the perforating branches become incompetent


digital veins and deep veins of the foot and ankle drain into pairs of these veins that parallel the arteries of the same name.

Anterior Tibial Veins and Posterior Tibial Veins


A pair of veins that travel alongside the fibular artery merge with the posterior tibial veins.

Fibular Veins


Together, the Fibular Veins and Posterior Tibial Veins merge to form:

the Popliteal Vein that accompanies the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa.


The Popliteal Vein curves to the anterior portion of the thigh and is renamed:

the Femoral Vein


One the Femoral Vein passes deep to the inguinal ligament, it is renamed again

External Iliac Vein


External and Internal Iliac Veins merge in the pelvis, forming the:

Common Iliac Vein (then merge to IVC)


Princess Diana tore one of these veins when she was thrown forward under the right front dashboard

Left Pulmonary Vein


Pulmonary Arteries have less ________ and ________ lumens than Systemic Arteries. Why is this significant?

less elastic tissue and wider lumens. this results in the lower BP in the pulmonary arteries and lower pressure on the right side of the heart.


Blood in aorta enters what type of arteries before it enters arterioles?

aorta > elastic arteries > muscular arteries > arterioles


With age, heart and vessels become less resilient and many of the elastic arteries are less able to withstand the forces from the pulsating blood. This can lead to what condition, which further exacerbates the problem?



pain in mediastinum, shortness of breath, and can be confused for MI

Pulmonary embolism


can an embolism in venous circulation cause a CVA?

only if there is a defect between the atria, such as a Patent Foramen Ovale


common site for aneurysm

Where abdominal aorta branches into L and R common iliac arteries. under high pressure from the narrower diameter


What causes the greater pressure in the R side of a fetal heart?

1. resistance in pulmonary circulation 2. greater flow from umbilical vein via inferior vena cava


What are the 3 fully oxygenated vessels in a developing fetus?

1. Umbilical Vein 2. Portal Sinus 3. Ductus Venosus


Two possibilities for blood to bypass collapsed lungs from the R atrium:

1. Foramen Ovale (R atrium > L atrium) 2. Ductus Arteriosus (pulmonary trunk > aortic arch)


Two reasons septum primum swings to the right and seal shut upon birth:

1. inflation of lungs (reduces resistance in pulmonary circulation) 2. umbilical cord clamped and cut (reduces blood flow into IVC and make pressure in L atrium > R atrium)


In an umbilical catheterization, how would blood be removed? How would you administer medications?

Blood removed from umbilical arteries. Medications added into umbilical vein.


Progressive disease of the elastic and muscular arteries. Characterized by the presence of an atheroma, which leads to the thickening of the tunica intima and narrowing of the arterial lumen.



Repeated injury to the endothelium of an arterial wall results in an inflammatory reaction that eventually leads to the development of an atheroma. Infection, trauma, or hypertension can cause injury to the endothelium and increase permeability. Leukocytes and platelets adhere to lesion. LDLs and VLDLs enter tunica intima and remain stuck. This attracts monocytes that migrate into the wall and digest the lipids, and develop into structures called foam cells. These plaques cause narrowing of the lumen, thereby restricting bloodflow.

response-to-injury hypothesis for the cause of Atherosclerosis


increased amount of cholesterol in the blood. . tend to have family history of it. increases rate of development of atherosclerosis.



Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis

Hypercholesterolemia, Male, Age, Smoking, and Hypertension


Treatment of Atherosclerosis

Angioplasty or Coronary Bypass Surgery (occluded coronary arteries)


Prevention of Atherosclerosis

healthy diet, watch cholesterol level, don't smoke, monitor blood pressure regularly, treat hypertension asap


balloon tip catheter is inserted into narrowed region of an artery and then inflated, forcing the lumen to expand. Stent is put in place to ensure lumen remains open, and becomes permanent part of vessel.



A vein or artery is dettached from its original location and grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery system, thus bypassing the areas of it atherosclerotic narrowing

Coronary Bypass Surgery


most often a consequence of atherosclerosis. typically develops between renal arteries and common iliac arteries. potential surgical emergency. Detected by a pulsating abdominal mass. Treatment includes a stent graft through the femoral artery, but may not lead to a complete cure.

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm


weak area in cerebral blood vessel that balloons out and fills with blood. Most commonly occur along arteries that form the cerebral arterial circle. Have potential to cause hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, nerve damage, or death.

Berry (cerebral or saccular) Aneurysm


sudden and extreme headache ("worst headache of my life"), double vision, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, loss of consciousness

Symptoms of a ruptured berry aneurysm


congenital defects, hypertension, atherosclerosis, head trauma, or infection

possible causes of a Berry Aneurysm


condition in infants where an embryonic artery fails to close off after birth. Blood from aorta is shunted to the pulmonary system. If left untreated, pulmonary hypertension may lead to failure of right ventricle. Circulating chemical prostaglandin keeps artery open. Treatment includes prostaglandin-inhibiting medication. If unsuccessful, artery must be surgically repaired.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus


fetal chemical responsible for keeping Ductus Arteriosus open until birth



Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm


Atherosclerotic Artery. Presence of Atheroma


"Blue Baby" (cyanotic) due to Patent Foramen Ovale


Endovascular Stent Graft for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm


Jugular Vein Distension, JVD (only from external jugulars). sign of cardiac tamponade


Fossa Ovalis


IV in Median Cubital Vein


Hepatic Portal System

Pink= Splenic Vein

Blue= Hepatic Portal Vein

Green= Superior Mesenteric Vein

Purple= Inferior Mesenteric Vein


healthy artery


Small Saphenous Vein


Staphylococcal Nasal Abcess