It lies deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscles and eventually merges with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic.
Internal Jugular Vein
It is superficial to the sternocleidomastoid muscles and drains into the subclavian vein. Enlargement of this vein can lead to Jugular Vein Distention which is a sign of cardiac tamponade.
External Jugular Vein
They extend through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae and drain into the brachiocephalic veins.
Most of the venous blood of the cranium drains through these veins and then go into the internal jugular veins. They are formed between the two layers of the dura mater and also receive excess CSF.
Dural Venous Sinuses
It receives input from the superior and inferior opthalmic veins that drain the skin in the region around the nose. It is near the sella turcica.
It is a vein on the posterior body wall just to the right of the vertebral column. This vein receives venous drainage from the lumbar region, sacral region, intercostal muscles, the bronchi, esophagus, and pericardium. It then merges with the superior vena cava.
They drain into the azygous system of veins and are in the lungs.
These veins drain into the azygous vein or left gastric vein.
Superior phrenic veins and inferior phrenic veins which merge with the inferior vena cava. The third is the musculophrenic veins that travel through branches that eventually lead to brachiocephalic.
An area surrounding the nose where the superior and inferior opthalamic veins drain into the cavernous veins. Beware of nose piercings!
Arteries from the digestive tract drain into the capillaries of the intestines/digestive tract and then go to the capillaries of the liver (which filter the blood and absorb nutrients). Then the blood goes to the hepatic vein to the IVC to the right atrium.
Hepatic Portal System
It receives oxygen poor, but nutrient rich blood from the: 1) intestines 2) Pancreas 3) Spleen 4) stomach 5) Gallbladder
Hepatic portal vein
It is a network of veins that are on the dorsum of the hand. These veins drain into the basilic and cephalic veins.
Dorsal Venous Arch
It is composed of the cephalic vein (lateral side of upper limb) and the basilic vein (medial side of upper limb). It is a common site for venipuncture.
Medial Cubital Vein
It is a network of veins that drains into the great saphenous vein on the medial side of the foot near the medial malleolus.
Dorsal Venous Arch of foot
It is the longest vein in the body and is sometimes removed for use as vascular graft material elsewhere in the body (coronary bypass.)
Great Saphenous Vein
It extends adjacent to the lateral side of the ankle and then travels along the posterior calf, before draining into the popliteal vein.
Small Saphenous vein
If someone has acute trauma, you need to get them in the OR within 60 minutes.
It is when part of the arterial wall thins and balloons out. The wall is more prone to rupture which can cause massive bleeding and death. Albert Einstein died of this.
The fetus receives oxygen and nutrients directly from the mother via the umbilical cord. It is composed of 1 Umbilical Vein (brings oxygenated blood to the fetus) and 2 Umbilical Arteries (brings blood away from the heart).
It brings oxygenated blood in to the fetus and is shunted away through the Ductus Venosus and Portal SInus. These vessels are the only fully oxygenated vessels in the fetal circulation. This vein becomes the round ligament of the liver called the ligamentum teres.
It is a detour where the blood is shunted from the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch. It becomes the non-functional ligamentum arteriosum within 10-15 hours after birth and gradually atrophies.
It is one of the veins where the umbilicus vein is shunted near the liver and drains into the inferior vena cava. When the baby is born it becomes the ligamentum venosum
They are vessels that take deoxygenated blood away from the baby's heart while in the womb. Once the baby is born they turn into the Medial Umbilical Ligaments.
To place blood or any other fluid inside a baby after he or she is born you can place it in the umbilical vein. To take blood out you must remove it from the umbilical arteries.
A lady came in for a routine check-up. She seemed to have an irregular heartbeat. The doctor later found out that he had lost hearing in one of his ears so he thought that he falsely suspected the heart murmur. Later he listened to the heart again and started to trace the sound he was hearing (other doctors told the woman she had a heart problem). What did he find?
He found that she at Arteriorvenous Malformation or AVM in her head.
Complex tangles of abnormal arteries and veins that can be located in almost any organ in the body. They move fast and have a defective layer and prone to rupture and bleed.
How is AVM fixed?
They put a catheter on it and a metallic coil to thread off the feeder vessel. They are now empty vessels.
Patent Foramen Ovale/Atrial Septal Defect/Perforated Fossa Ovalis may cause what condition?
migraines but the mechanism is unclear. PFO's can cause higher rates of decompression sickness in scuba divers. Women are more likely to get migraines but the cause is unknown. Sometimes migraines are preceded by auras, which are imaginary lights, other vision disturbances or numbness on one side of the body.
What can be done to fix migraines in patients with PFO's
PFO closures have been shown to reduce migraines.
liver capillaries that receive blood from hepatic portal vein and hepatic arteries. site where blood mixes
Why is the liver slightly more susceptible to anaerobic bacterial infections than other body tissues?
The reduced oxygen levels from blood mixing in the sinusoids
Left anterior descending artery
Organs and structures of the pelvis and perineum are drained by numerous veins that merge to form? that then drains into the?
internal iliac veins drain into the common iliac veins (L and R common iliac veins merge to form inferior vena cava)
when valves of veins or the perforating branches become incompetent
digital veins and deep veins of the foot and ankle drain into pairs of these veins that parallel the arteries of the same name.
Anterior Tibial Veins and Posterior Tibial Veins
A pair of veins that travel alongside the fibular artery merge with the posterior tibial veins.
Together, the Fibular Veins and Posterior Tibial Veins merge to form:
the Popliteal Vein that accompanies the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa.
The Popliteal Vein curves to the anterior portion of the thigh and is renamed:
the Femoral Vein
One the Femoral Vein passes deep to the inguinal ligament, it is renamed again
External Iliac Vein
External and Internal Iliac Veins merge in the pelvis, forming the:
Common Iliac Vein (then merge to IVC)
Princess Diana tore one of these veins when she was thrown forward under the right front dashboard
Left Pulmonary Vein
Pulmonary Arteries have less ________ and ________ lumens than Systemic Arteries. Why is this significant?
less elastic tissue and wider lumens. this results in the lower BP in the pulmonary arteries and lower pressure on the right side of the heart.
Blood in aorta enters what type of arteries before it enters arterioles?
aorta > elastic arteries > muscular arteries > arterioles
With age, heart and vessels become less resilient and many of the elastic arteries are less able to withstand the forces from the pulsating blood. This can lead to what condition, which further exacerbates the problem?
pain in mediastinum, shortness of breath, and can be confused for MI
can an embolism in venous circulation cause a CVA?
only if there is a defect between the atria, such as a Patent Foramen Ovale
common site for aneurysm
Where abdominal aorta branches into L and R common iliac arteries. under high pressure from the narrower diameter
What causes the greater pressure in the R side of a fetal heart?
1. resistance in pulmonary circulation 2. greater flow from umbilical vein via inferior vena cava
What are the 3 fully oxygenated vessels in a developing fetus?
1. Umbilical Vein 2. Portal Sinus 3. Ductus Venosus
Two possibilities for blood to bypass collapsed lungs from the R atrium:
1. Foramen Ovale (R atrium > L atrium) 2. Ductus Arteriosus (pulmonary trunk > aortic arch)
Two reasons septum primum swings to the right and seal shut upon birth:
1. inflation of lungs (reduces resistance in pulmonary circulation) 2. umbilical cord clamped and cut (reduces blood flow into IVC and make pressure in L atrium > R atrium)
In an umbilical catheterization, how would blood be removed? How would you administer medications?
Blood removed from umbilical arteries. Medications added into umbilical vein.
Progressive disease of the elastic and muscular arteries. Characterized by the presence of an atheroma, which leads to the thickening of the tunica intima and narrowing of the arterial lumen.
Repeated injury to the endothelium of an arterial wall results in an inflammatory reaction that eventually leads to the development of an atheroma. Infection, trauma, or hypertension can cause injury to the endothelium and increase permeability. Leukocytes and platelets adhere to lesion. LDLs and VLDLs enter tunica intima and remain stuck. This attracts monocytes that migrate into the wall and digest the lipids, and develop into structures called foam cells. These plaques cause narrowing of the lumen, thereby restricting bloodflow.
response-to-injury hypothesis for the cause of Atherosclerosis
increased amount of cholesterol in the blood. . tend to have family history of it. increases rate of development of atherosclerosis.
Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis
Hypercholesterolemia, Male, Age, Smoking, and Hypertension
Treatment of Atherosclerosis
Angioplasty or Coronary Bypass Surgery (occluded coronary arteries)
Prevention of Atherosclerosis
healthy diet, watch cholesterol level, don't smoke, monitor blood pressure regularly, treat hypertension asap
balloon tip catheter is inserted into narrowed region of an artery and then inflated, forcing the lumen to expand. Stent is put in place to ensure lumen remains open, and becomes permanent part of vessel.
A vein or artery is dettached from its original location and grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery system, thus bypassing the areas of it atherosclerotic narrowing
Coronary Bypass Surgery
most often a consequence of atherosclerosis. typically develops between renal arteries and common iliac arteries. potential surgical emergency. Detected by a pulsating abdominal mass. Treatment includes a stent graft through the femoral artery, but may not lead to a complete cure.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
weak area in cerebral blood vessel that balloons out and fills with blood. Most commonly occur along arteries that form the cerebral arterial circle. Have potential to cause hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, nerve damage, or death.
Berry (cerebral or saccular) Aneurysm
sudden and extreme headache ("worst headache of my life"), double vision, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, loss of consciousness
Symptoms of a ruptured berry aneurysm
congenital defects, hypertension, atherosclerosis, head trauma, or infection
possible causes of a Berry Aneurysm
condition in infants where an embryonic artery fails to close off after birth. Blood from aorta is shunted to the pulmonary system. If left untreated, pulmonary hypertension may lead to failure of right ventricle. Circulating chemical prostaglandin keeps artery open. Treatment includes prostaglandin-inhibiting medication. If unsuccessful, artery must be surgically repaired.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
fetal chemical responsible for keeping Ductus Arteriosus open until birth
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Atherosclerotic Artery. Presence of Atheroma
"Blue Baby" (cyanotic) due to Patent Foramen Ovale
Endovascular Stent Graft for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Jugular Vein Distension, JVD (only from external jugulars). sign of cardiac tamponade
IV in Median Cubital Vein
Hepatic Portal System
Pink= Splenic Vein
Blue= Hepatic Portal Vein
Green= Superior Mesenteric Vein
Purple= Inferior Mesenteric Vein
Small Saphenous Vein
Staphylococcal Nasal Abcess