Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Clinical Med > Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (93):
1

Which quadrant is the liver and gallbladder in?

RUQ

2

Which quadrant is the left lobe of the liver in?

LUQ

3

Which quadrant is the lower pole of the right kidney in?

RLQ

4

Which quadrant is the cecum and appendix in?

RLQ

5

Which quadrant is the lower pole of the left kidney?

LLQ

6

Which quadrant is the pylorus in?

RUQ

7

Which quadrant is the spleen in?

LUQ

8

Which quadrant is the stomach in?

LUQ

9

Which quadrant is the duodenum in?

RUQ

10

Which quadrant is the bladder in (if distended)?

BLQ

11

Which quadrant are the ovaries located in?

BLQ

12

Which quadrant is the uterus located in?

BLQ

13

Which quadrant are the ureters in?

BLQ (for each side)

14

Which quadrant is the splenic flexure in?

LUQ

15

Which quadrant are the adrenal glands located in?

BUQ

16

Which quadrant is the Hepatic flexure of the colon located in?

RUQ

17

Which quadrant is pancreas in?

LUQ

18

Which quadrant is the ascending colon in?

RLQ and RUQ

19

Which quadrant is the spermatic cords in?

RLQ and LLQ

20

What are the steps of the PE for the abdomen?

Look, listen, Feel

21

What is Grey Turner's sign and what seen in (4)?

Bruising of the flanks

Pancreatitis
Abdominal trauma
AAA
Ruptured ectopic

22

What is Cullen's sign, and what is it seen in (2)?

Periumbilical bruising

Pancreatitis
Rupture ectopic

23

True or false: cullen's and grey-Turner's sign have a high specificity, but low sensitivity?

False, low sensitivity and low specificity

24

What is linea nigra?

A vertical line of pigmentation down from the umbilical that is often seen in pregnancy

25

What is caput Medusa?

Dilated, tortuous, and superficial veins that radiate upward from the umbilicus

26

What is diastasis recti?

A separation between the left and right side of the retus abdominus muscle

27

What does a scaphoid abdomen look like?

Concave

28

What does a protuberant abdomen look like

Convex

29

What can cause a distended lower abdomen (4)?

Bladder distention
Pregnancy
Ovarian mass
Sigmoid tumor

30

What can cause a protuberant abdomen (4)?

Excess gas
Ascities
Organomegally
Obesity

31

What are you listening for when you listen to the abdomen?

Bowel sounds, bruits

32

Which part of the stethoscope do you listen with when auscultating the abdomen?

Diaphragm

33

What should you listen for in the abdomen besides bowel sounds?

Aortic bruit
Renal arteries
Iliac arteries
Femoral bruit

34

What is the medical terms for a stomach growling?

Borborygmi

35

How often do borborygmi occur?

5-35 per minute

36

Increased BS is indicative of what? (3)

Gastroenterisis
early obstruction
Hunger

37

High-pitching tinkling in the abdomen is indicative of what (2)?

Intestinal fluid and air under pressure
Early obstruction

38

Decreased BS is indicative of what?

Peritonisis and paralytic ileus

39

True or false: a healthy spleen will be dull to percussion

True

40

What type of sound is produced from a protuberant abdomen? What does this suggest?

Diffusely tympanitic
Intestinal obstruction

41

Describe tympany (pitch, resonance etc). Where is it heard?

Musical note of higher pitch than resonance

Heard over air-filler viscera

42

Describe hyperresonance. Where is it heard?

Between tympany and resonance.

Heard over the base of the lung.

43

Describe resonance. Where is it heard?

Sustained note of moderate pitch.

Heard over lung tissue and sometimes in the abdomen

44

Describe dullness. Where is it heard?

Short, high pitched note with little resonance

Heard over solid organs adjacent to air filler structures

45

What does the fluid wave test for?

Ascities

46

What does the shifting dullness test, test for?

Ascities

47

What is Lloyd's test?

CVA TTP

48

True or false: a normal liver can be palpated

True

49

True or false: a normal kidney can be palpated

false

50

True or false: a normal spleen can be palpated

False

51

True or false: a normal aorta can be palpated

True if patient is skinny

52

What is an inflammation of the peritoneum?

Peritonitis

53

Is guarding voluntary or involuntary?

Voluntary

54

Where is McBurney' point located?

1/3 distance from ASIS to umbilicus

55

Is rigidity voluntary or involuntary?

Involuntary

56

What is Rovsing's sign?

RLQ pain worse by palpation of the LLQ. Seen in appy

57

What is romberg-Howship's sign?

Pain over the medial aspect of the thigh to the knee.

Seen in stragulated obturator hernia

58

What is Markle's sign?

Pain with hitting heels or jarring the abdomen

Can be seen in peritonitis, appy)

59

What is Kehr's sign?

Abdominal pain radiation to the left shoulder

Spleen rupture, renal calculi, ectopic)

60

What is the dance sign?

Absence of bowel sounds in RLQ (intussusception)

61

What is Blumberg's sign?

Fixed dullner to prescussion in the let flanks and dullness in the right flank that disappears with position change

This can be seen in peritoneal irritation or appy

62

Classically, burning pain is seen in what?

Peptic ulcer

63

Classically, cramping pain is seen in what?

biliary colic
gastroenteritis

64

Classically, colicky pain is seen in what?

Appy/renal stone

65

Classically, aching pain is seen in what?

appendiceal irritation

66

Classically, knife-like pain is seen in what?

Pancreatitis

67

Classically, ripping or tearing pain is seen in what?

Aortic dissection

68

Classically, a gradual pain is seen in what?

infx

69

Classically, sudden pain is seen in what?

duodeanal ulcer
Acute pancreatitis
obstruction/perforation

70

Sudden LUQ/epigastric pain that radiates to the left shoulder. Associated symptoms include vomiting, fever, and shock. PE shows +grey turner's and Cullen signs. Diagnosis?

Pancreatitis

71

LLQ pain with associated fever, diarrhea, anorexia. LLQ TTP. Diagnosis?

Diverticulitis

72

BLQ pain in sexually active female. Associated n/v cervical discharge, dyspareunia. Adnexal and cervical TTP. Diagnosis?

PID

73

Above what age is considered a risk for colon CA?

older than 50

74

What ethnic background is predisposed to colon CA?

Jew

75

True or false:obesity increases the risk for colon CA

True

76

True or false: smoking increases the risk for colon CA

True

77

True or false: EtOH increases the risk for colon CA

True

78

What type of diet predisposes people to colon CA?

low fiber/fruit/veggies

High fat

79

What are the two major hereditary diseases that cause colon CA?

HNPCC
FAP

80

True or false: you should try to avoid examining babies in their mother's arm/lap

False, opposite is true

81

True or false: diastasis recti is benign in children and will resolve itself

True

82

What are the aggrevating factors for an umbilical hernia in infants?

Crying, straining etc

83

True or false: umbilical hernias in infants are benign and will usually close by themselves

True

84

True or false: inguinal hernias in infants are benign and will usually close by themselves

False--inguinal hernias may incarcerate

85

Are infants' abdomen more rounded or more flat than adults?

Rounded

86

True or false: distension of an infants abdomen is normal, but scaphoid abdomens are abnormal

False, both abnormal

87

When do umbilical cord fall off generally?

14 days

88

Why should you not do a toddler's abdominal exam standing up?

Their stomach will appear distended d/t lumbar lordosis

89

How many cm below the costal margin will you find infant's livers? Where should you start then?

1-3 cm below, so start 3-4 cm below

90

Is it okay to palpate a baby's abdomen while they're breast feeding?

Yes, encouraged for calmness

91

Why do you flex infants knees when palpating their abdomen?

softens stomach

92

What is the most common palpable mass in an infant's abdomen?

Enlarged kidney

93

Redness around the umbilical cord is concerning for?what

Necratizing fasicitis