Flashcards in Eyes continued Deck (85):
What is the normal size of pupils?
What is an abnormal finding when testing pupillary responses?
Constriction of one pupil, but not the other.
Slow/fast constriction relative to the other
What type of chart is used when testing close up vision?
What is the distance used for a Rosenbaum test?
At least 14 inches away from the eyes.
What type of chart is used when testing far distance sight?
What is the distance from the patient to the snellen chart?
What is the normal range of vision for an adult?
20/12 to 20/25
What is the near normal range of vision for an adult?
20/30 to 20/70
What is moderate low vision for an adult?
20/80 to 20/160
What is severe low vision for an adult?
20/200 to 20/400
What is considered legally blind?
If corrected vision cannot get better than 20/200
What is the border of the iris called?
True or false: periorbital edema is always concerning
When would you perform en eversion of the upper eyelid?
When searching for polpys/FB
True or false: the swinging light test can be done even if cataracts are present?
What is an efferent defect of the eye? Which CN is involved?
When the pupil will not constrict (consensually or directly) due to a problem with CN III
What is an afferent defect of the eye? Which CN is involved?
When a pupil will constrict consensually, but not directly (due to a defect in CN II)
What structure separates the anterior chamber of the eye, from the posterior chamber?
What is the central canal in the eye called?
When performing a lateral penlight test, what portion of the iris showing on the nose will be considered an abnormal test?
A pupil that is incorrectly medially directed is called what?
A pupil that is incorrectly laterally directed is called what?
A pupil that is incorrectly superiorly directed is called what?
A pupil that is incorrectly inferiorly directed is called what?
What does the cover-test look for?
What does the cover-uncover test look for?
The corneal reflex test is testing which CN(s)?
V1 and V2
When is the green light used in the fundoscopic exam?
To examine nerve fibers, drusen, or blood
When is the slit used in the fundoscopic exam?
To examine the anterior chamber and determine elevation of lesions
When is the large light used in a fundoscopic exam?
For dilated pupils
When is the small light used in a fundoscopic exam?
for undilated pupils
Which are thicker in the eyes: arteries or veins?
When is A-V nicking seen in the eye?
A pale and clearly dmaracted disc in the eye is indicative of what?
Pathological cupping in an eye exam is indicative of what?
New vessels on the optic disc is indicative of what?
Blurred margins of the optic disc is indicative of what?
What is accomodation?
Adjustment of the eye for aruious distances through modification of the lens curvature
What is Amsler grid?
A set of charts with various geometric shapes in black and white, used for detecting defects of the central visual field
What is Anisocoria?
Inequality of the diameter of the pupils. Normal if within 1 mm
What is Aphakia?
A condition in which part or all of the crystalline lens of the eye is absent (usually due to surgical removal of the lens)
What is aqueous humor?
the watery transparent liquid containing trace albumin and small amounts of salts produced by the iris, ciliary body, and cornea.
What is astigmatism?
An abnormal condition in which the light rays cannot be focused clearly in a point of the retina, because of an irregular curvature of the cornea or lens
What are Cataracts?
opacity of the lens; most commonly resulting from denaturation of the lens proteins caused by aging
What is chalazion?
Small, hard tumor analogous to sebaceous cyst deelopin on the eye lids, formed by distention of a meibomian gland with secretion
What is a choroid?
The middle vascular tunic of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera.
What is a ciliary body?
the thickened part of the vascular tunic of the eye that joins the iris with the anterior portion of the choroid.
What are cones (referring to the eye)?
the photosensitive, outward directed conical process of a cone cell essential for sharp vision and color vision.
What is confrontation (referring to the eye)?
a test for estimating peripheral vision
What is the conjunctiva?
the mucous membrane investing the anterior surface of the eyeball and the posterior surface of the lid
What is the cornea?
The clear, transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye comprising about 1/6 of its surface. It is the chief refractory structure of the eye.
What is a corneal arcus?
opaque, white ring about corneal periphery, seen in many individuals older than 60 years. This is due to the deposit of lipids in the cornea of to hyaline degeneration
What is a cotton-wool spot?
an ill-defined yellow area due to infarction of the nerve layer of the retina.
What is diabetic retinopathy (background)?
a condition characterized by dot hemorrhages or micro-aneurysms and the presence of hart and soft exudates?
What is diabetic retinopathy (proliferative)?
a condition characterized by development of new vessels as a result of anoxic stimulation; vessles grow out of the retina toward the vitreous humor
Refractive power of the lens with focal distance of 1 meter
yellow or white deposits in the retina
eversion of an edge or margin
Inflammation of the superfical layers of the sclera
an increase in the volume of the orbital content, causgin a protrusion of the globes forward
error of refraction in which , with accommodation completely relacex, parallel rays come to focus behind the retina
A disease of the optic nerve wherein the nerve cells die, producing increased cupping appearance of the optic nerve.
blindness for half the field of vision in one or both eyes
Define: hordeolum (sty)
a supprative inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
eyes spaced widely apart
Blood in the anterior chamber
inflammation of the iris
Define: legal blindness
worse than 20/200 with correction or 20 degrees of peripheral vision in the best eye
Central area of vision on the retina
abnormal contraction of pupils
a condition resulting from a refractive error in which light rays entering the eye are brought into focus in front of the retina
Edema of the optic disc, resulting in loss of definition of the disc margin; the cause often is increased intracranial pressure
a harmless, yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva on either side of the iris that stops at the limbus
hyperopia and impaired near vision from loss of lens elasticity
a triangular thickening of the bulbar conjunctiva that frowns slowly to the outer surface of the cornea, usually from the nasal side, and may cover a portion of the cornea
the drooping of one or both upper eyelids
the tiny aperture in the margin of each eyelid that opens to the lacrimal duct
the act of determining the nature and degree of the refractive erros in the eye and correction of them by lenses
Define: retinitis pigmentosa
a chronic, progressive disease, which may occur in childhood, characterized degeneration of the reitinal neuroepithelium
an embryonic malignant glioma arising from the retina usually during the first two years of lufe
a condition in which both eyes do not focus on the same object simultaneously
inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and chorid, or the entire uvea