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Flashcards in Eyes continued Deck (85):
1

What is the normal size of pupils?

5-8 mm

2

What is an abnormal finding when testing pupillary responses?

Constriction of one pupil, but not the other.
Slow/fast constriction relative to the other

3

What type of chart is used when testing close up vision?

Rosenbaum test

4

What is the distance used for a Rosenbaum test?

At least 14 inches away from the eyes.

5

What type of chart is used when testing far distance sight?

Snellen chart

6

What is the distance from the patient to the snellen chart?

20 feet

7

What is the normal range of vision for an adult?

20/12 to 20/25

8

What is the near normal range of vision for an adult?

20/30 to 20/70

9

What is moderate low vision for an adult?

20/80 to 20/160

10

What is severe low vision for an adult?

20/200 to 20/400

11

What is considered legally blind?

If corrected vision cannot get better than 20/200

12

What is the border of the iris called?

corneal limbus

13

True or false: periorbital edema is always concerning

True

14

When would you perform en eversion of the upper eyelid?

When searching for polpys/FB

15

True or false: the swinging light test can be done even if cataracts are present?

True

16

What is an efferent defect of the eye? Which CN is involved?

When the pupil will not constrict (consensually or directly) due to a problem with CN III

17

What is an afferent defect of the eye? Which CN is involved?

When a pupil will constrict consensually, but not directly (due to a defect in CN II)

18

What structure separates the anterior chamber of the eye, from the posterior chamber?

The iris

19

What is the central canal in the eye called?

Hyaloid canal

20

When performing a lateral penlight test, what portion of the iris showing on the nose will be considered an abnormal test?

2/3

21

A pupil that is incorrectly medially directed is called what?

Esotropia

22

A pupil that is incorrectly laterally directed is called what?

Exotropia

23

A pupil that is incorrectly superiorly directed is called what?

Hypertropia

24

A pupil that is incorrectly inferiorly directed is called what?

Hypotropia

25

What does the cover-test look for?

Tropias

26

What does the cover-uncover test look for?

Phorias

27

The corneal reflex test is testing which CN(s)?

V1 and V2

28

When is the green light used in the fundoscopic exam?

To examine nerve fibers, drusen, or blood

29

When is the slit used in the fundoscopic exam?

To examine the anterior chamber and determine elevation of lesions

30

When is the large light used in a fundoscopic exam?

For dilated pupils

31

When is the small light used in a fundoscopic exam?

for undilated pupils

32

Which are thicker in the eyes: arteries or veins?

Veins

33

When is A-V nicking seen in the eye?

HTN

34

A pale and clearly dmaracted disc in the eye is indicative of what?

Optic atrophy

35

Pathological cupping in an eye exam is indicative of what?

Glaucoma

36

New vessels on the optic disc is indicative of what?

DM retinopathy

37

Blurred margins of the optic disc is indicative of what?

Papilledema

38

What is accomodation?

Adjustment of the eye for aruious distances through modification of the lens curvature

39

What is Amsler grid?

A set of charts with various geometric shapes in black and white, used for detecting defects of the central visual field

40

What is Anisocoria?

Inequality of the diameter of the pupils. Normal if within 1 mm

41

What is Aphakia?

A condition in which part or all of the crystalline lens of the eye is absent (usually due to surgical removal of the lens)

42

What is aqueous humor?

the watery transparent liquid containing trace albumin and small amounts of salts produced by the iris, ciliary body, and cornea.

43

What is astigmatism?

An abnormal condition in which the light rays cannot be focused clearly in a point of the retina, because of an irregular curvature of the cornea or lens

44

What are Cataracts?

opacity of the lens; most commonly resulting from denaturation of the lens proteins caused by aging

45

What is chalazion?

Small, hard tumor analogous to sebaceous cyst deelopin on the eye lids, formed by distention of a meibomian gland with secretion

46

What is a choroid?

The middle vascular tunic of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera.

47

What is a ciliary body?

the thickened part of the vascular tunic of the eye that joins the iris with the anterior portion of the choroid.

48

What are cones (referring to the eye)?

the photosensitive, outward directed conical process of a cone cell essential for sharp vision and color vision.

49

What is confrontation (referring to the eye)?

a test for estimating peripheral vision

50

What is the conjunctiva?

the mucous membrane investing the anterior surface of the eyeball and the posterior surface of the lid

51

What is the cornea?

The clear, transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye comprising about 1/6 of its surface. It is the chief refractory structure of the eye.

52

What is a corneal arcus?

opaque, white ring about corneal periphery, seen in many individuals older than 60 years. This is due to the deposit of lipids in the cornea of to hyaline degeneration

53

What is a cotton-wool spot?

an ill-defined yellow area due to infarction of the nerve layer of the retina.

54

What is diabetic retinopathy (background)?

a condition characterized by dot hemorrhages or micro-aneurysms and the presence of hart and soft exudates?

55

What is diabetic retinopathy (proliferative)?

a condition characterized by development of new vessels as a result of anoxic stimulation; vessles grow out of the retina toward the vitreous humor

56

Define: diopter

Refractive power of the lens with focal distance of 1 meter

57

Define: diplopia

double vision

58

Define: drusen

yellow or white deposits in the retina

59

Define: ectropion

eversion of an edge or margin

60

Define: episcleritis

Inflammation of the superfical layers of the sclera

61

Define: entropion

an increase in the volume of the orbital content, causgin a protrusion of the globes forward

62

Define: farsightedness

error of refraction in which , with accommodation completely relacex, parallel rays come to focus behind the retina

63

Define: glaucoma

A disease of the optic nerve wherein the nerve cells die, producing increased cupping appearance of the optic nerve.

64

Define: hemiaopia

blindness for half the field of vision in one or both eyes

65

Define: hordeolum (sty)

a supprative inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid

66

Define: hypertelorism

eyes spaced widely apart

67

Define: Hyphema

Blood in the anterior chamber

68

Define: iritis

inflammation of the iris

69

Define: legal blindness

worse than 20/200 with correction or 20 degrees of peripheral vision in the best eye

70

Define: macula

Central area of vision on the retina

71

Define: mydriasis

pupillary dilation

72

Define: miosis

abnormal contraction of pupils

73

Define: mypoia

a condition resulting from a refractive error in which light rays entering the eye are brought into focus in front of the retina

74

Define: papilledema

Edema of the optic disc, resulting in loss of definition of the disc margin; the cause often is increased intracranial pressure

75

Define: pinguecula

a harmless, yellowish triangular nodule in the bulbar conjunctiva on either side of the iris that stops at the limbus

76

Define: presbyopia

hyperopia and impaired near vision from loss of lens elasticity

77

Define: pterygium

a triangular thickening of the bulbar conjunctiva that frowns slowly to the outer surface of the cornea, usually from the nasal side, and may cover a portion of the cornea

78

Define: ptosis

the drooping of one or both upper eyelids

79

Define: punctum

the tiny aperture in the margin of each eyelid that opens to the lacrimal duct

80

Define: refraction

the act of determining the nature and degree of the refractive erros in the eye and correction of them by lenses

81

Define: retinitis pigmentosa

a chronic, progressive disease, which may occur in childhood, characterized degeneration of the reitinal neuroepithelium

82

Define: retinoblastoma

an embryonic malignant glioma arising from the retina usually during the first two years of lufe

83

Define: strabismus

a condition in which both eyes do not focus on the same object simultaneously

84

Define: uveitis

inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and chorid, or the entire uvea

85

Define: xanthelasma

an elevated plaque commonly found on the nasal portion of the eyelid due to elevated cholesterol