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Flashcards in adrenal pathology Deck (30)
1

solitary, well-circumscribed, yellow-orange lesions within adrenal cortex or protrude into medulla

adrenal cortical adenoma

2

functional adenomas are____

atrophied

3

non-functional adenoma are____

normal thickness

4

vacuolated, lipid rich tumor cella, mild pleomorphism

adrenal cortical adenoma

5

lesions that are yellow on cut surface, but usu contain areas of hemorrhage, cystic change, and necrosis

adrenal cortical carcinomas

6

carcinoma or adenoma: invade vascular channel, with metastases

carcinoma

7

where do adrenal cortical carcinomas like to metastasize to?

lungs

8

if you see anaplasia on histo of adrenal cortex, it is likely_____

carcinoma

9

define anaplasia

lack of differentiation

10

how to differentiate adrenal cortical carcinoma from adenoma? (5)

1. metastases
2. large size
3. necrosis
4. mitotic figures
5. vascular invasion

11

adrenal cortex that is yellow, thickened and multinodular

adrenal cortical hyperplasia

12

caused by elevation in glucocorticoid/cortisol levels

cushings

13

a solitary, small, encapsulated aldosterone secreting adenoma

Conn syndrome

14

what accounts for 65% of primary hyperaldosteronism?

conn syndrome

15

clinical signs of hyperaldosteronism (4)

1. HTN
2. hypokalemia
3. high aldosterone
4. low blood renin

16

addison disease is primary acute OR chronic adrenocortical insufficiency

primary chronic adrenocortical insufficiency

17

septicemic infxn caused by N. meningitidis infxn that results in massive adrenal hemorrhage in children

waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome

18

waterhouse-friderichsen syndrome is more common in ____ vs addison disease which is more common in _____

children; adults

19

causes of addisons (3)

1. TB
2. fungi
3. metastatic neoplasms

20

morphology with small glands, lipid depletion, lymphocytic infiltrate in cortex

addison disease

21

presentation: fatigue, hyperpigmentation, N/V, hypotension, high potassium, low Na, elevated ACTH

addison disease

22

morphologically, sedonary adrenocortical insufficiency spares the ____ and _____

zona glomerulosa and medulla

23

uncommon neoplasms assc'd with incr catecholamine production and HTN

pheochromocytomas

24

the cut surface is pale gray/brown, assc'd with hemorrhage, necrosis, cystic change, highly vascular tumors

pheochromocytoma

25

neuroendocrine markers for pheochromocytoma (2)

1. synaptophysin
2. chromogranin

26

clinical presentation: abrupt HTN, sweating, tremor, HA, tachycardia, palpitations

pheochromocytoma

27

dx of pheochromocytoma (2)

1. urinary & serum catecholamines
2. MIBG scan

28

amplification of N-Myc oncogene

neuroblastoma

29

neuroblastoma is characerized by ___HTN, incr urine ____

diastolic; VMA/HNA

30

homer-wrigth rosettes

neuroblastoma