Type 2 DM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Type 2 DM Deck (39)
1

microvascular complications of diabetes?

1. retinopathy
2. neuropathy
3. nephropathy

2

macrovascular complicatiosn of diabetes

1. CVD
2. PVD
3. coronary heart disease

3

dx: sx of diabetes + casual glu >___

200

4

what are the sx of diabetes?

polyuria, polydipsia, unexplained weight loss

5

dx: fasting blood glu >____on ___occasions

>126 on 2 occasions

6

dx: 2 hour post-prandial glu >____ after 75g glu load

200

7

dx: HbA1c > ____

6.5%

8

alpha cells of islets of langerhans make_____

glucagon

9

D cells of islets of langerhans make _____

somatostatin

10

primary target tissues of insulin

live, muscle, fat

11

what does HbA1c correlate with?

3 month blood sugar avg

12

what can make a HgbA1c falsely elevated?

hemoglobunopatheis (sickle cell)

13

what can make a HgbA1c falsely low?

recent transfusion, anemia

14

what drugs act by preventing carb absorption from gut

alpha glucosidase inhibs

15

who are alpha glucosidase inhibs contraindicated in?

those with malabsorption

16

what DM med is the best option for patients with mild post prandial hyperglycemia?

alpha glucosidase inhibs

17

SE of alpha glucosidase inhibs

GI upset/bloating

18

what drugs stimulate insulin secretion by closing ATP-sensitive Potassium channels of pancreatic beta cells?

secretagogues

19

SE of secretagogues

hypoglycemia, weight gain

20

in ppl with severe renal or hepatic disease, which DM meds should be avoided?

secretagogues

21

what drugs fxn by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis, decr appetite?

biguanides

22

SE of biguanides

GI upset/lactic acidosis

23

in ppl with CRI (cr >1.5), CHF, liver disease, which drugs should be avoided?

biguanides

24

metformin/glucophage are?

biguanides

25

which drugs are PPAR gamma agonists?

thiazolinediones

26

where are PPAR receptors expressed?

adipose cells, muscles, vascular endothelium

27

how do PPAR receptors act?

induce adipose differentiation, promotoe fatty acid storage, fat cell redistribution

28

SE of thiazolinediones

fluid retention, weight gain

29

incretin mimetics can help with____, are used with_____

weight loss; Metformin/sulfonylurea/TZDs

30

what drug incr body's active incretin hormone levels?

DDP inhibs

31

which class of drugs is generally well tolerated and does not have GI side effects?

DDP inhibs

32

what decr the post prandial glucagon?

symalin (pramlintide)

33

most common SE of symalin (pramlintide)

hypoglycemia, nausea

34

if want to decr A1c by 1.2-1.8%, how many agents to use?

2

35

when oral meds are failing, continue____, add____

1.continue oral agents
2. add single injxn bedtime NPH or lantus

36

when oral meds are failing, stop____, start___ and ____

1. stop oral agents
2. start split mix insulin regimen
3, start MDIR

37

tx goals in T2DM: A1c____, fasting BG____, 2 hr post-prandial BG____

A1c under 7%, FBG under 110, 2 hr post-prandial BG under 160

38

tx goals in T2DM: TC ____, LDL____, TG_____

TC under 200, LDL under 100, TG under 150

39

after what age are ppl screened for DM?

age >45