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Flashcards in Adrenergics Deck (34):
0

Methoxamine

alpha-1 agonist used to treat orthostatic hypotension and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

1

Phenylephrine

alpha-1 receptor agonist. It is used to dilate the
eye, as a nasal decongestant, to terminate episodes of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (reflex), and to treat hypotension.

2

Clonidine

alpha-2 agonist that acts centrally to decrease
sympathetic outflow and thereby decrease blood pressure. Analogues are used to treat glaucoma.

3

Dobutamine

activates primarily beta-1 receptors. Used to treat
cardiogenic shock, low cardiac output. It is primarily an inotrope.

4

Methyldopa

converted methylnorepinephrine centrally which then activates alpha-2 receptors centrally to decrease sympathetic out flow and decrease blood pressure

5

Albuterol, metaproterenol, salmeterol, terbutaline

are all beta-2 agonist and can be used to treat bronchospasm, COPD, and bronchitis.

6

Isoproterenol

non-specific beta one agonist. Not the agent of choice for any application, but has been used for bronchospasm, heart block, and arrhythmias.

7

Pseudoephedrine

Mixed acting sympathomimetic. decongestant

8

Ephedrine

release of norepinephrine and also directly stimulate receptors, in the periphery as well as in the CNS. It thus has mild stimulatory effects. It is a component of the herbal medication, Ma
Huang.

10

Cocaine

blocks norepinephrine reuptake leading to an increase in norepinephrine and sympathetic responses. In the CNS, it has a profound stimulatory effect by blocking the reuptake of dopamine.

11

Amphetamine

substrate for the norepinephrine transporter; it then enters the vesicles, displacing norepinephrine, which then exits the presynaptic terminal via reversal of the transporter. This drug and its analogues are stimulants. They are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

12

Phenoxybenzamine

irreversible non-selective antagonist which will reduce blood pressure when sympathetic tone is high such as in patients with pheochromocytoma. Its primary adverse effect is tachycardia, due to blockade of presynaptic alpha2 receptors and reflex mechanisms.

13

Phentolamine

competitive antagonist at both alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors. Its primary adverse effect is tachycardia, due to blockade of
presynaptic alpha2 receptors and reflex mechanisms.

14

Prazosin

alpha1 receptors, therefore, it is less likely to cause tachycardia than phentolamine.

15

Terazosin, Doxazosin

alpha1 selective antagonists

16

Tamsulosin

alpha1A and 1D antagonist that is thought to predominate in
the prostate.

17

Yohimbine

alpha 2 receptor antagonist

18

Tx Pheochromocytoma

Phenoxybenzamine

19

Tx for Chronic hypertension

apha1 antagonists such prazosin are used, but generally are not used alone, because other classes of drugs are known to be efficacious in heart failure. The major side effect is orthostatic hypotension which is more likely to occur after the first few doses. Palpitation can occur.

20

Tx for Peripheral vascular disease

occasionally prazosin or phenoxybenzamine are used to treat vasospasm in the peripheral circulation (Raynaud’s phenomenon), but other agents such as calcium channel blockers are preferred. Behavioral modifications should be tried first.

21

Urinary obstruction

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is common in older men and
can be treated with alpa-1 antagonists such as prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin. Tamsulosin is more selective for the receptors in the prostate and therefore, it has relatively little effect on blood pressure and can be used in patients who have had a problem with orthostatic hypotension.

22

Erectile dysfunction

phentolamine is used as part of mixture that is injected into the penis, that facilitates erection in patients that have erectile dysfunction.

23

Propranolol

B-blocker Non-selective Highest lipid solubility; highest
anesthetic action (MSA)

24

Timolol

B-blocker Non-selective Glaucoma (widely used), HPTN, MI

25

Nadolol

B-blocker. Non-selective Long-lasting (24hr)
Hypertension, angina

26

Atenolol

Beta-1- selective Lowest lipid solub.
Hypertension (widely used)

27

Metoprolol

Beta-1-selective High lipid solub (MSA)
Hypertension (widely used), angina, MI

28

Esmolol

Beta-1-selective Very short acting (10min)
Intraoperative and postoperative hypertension, arryhthmias

29

Pindolol

Non-selective partial agonist (ISA) (MSA)
Hypertension (brady/peripheral vascular disease)

30

Acebutolol

Hypertension (brady)

31

Labetolol

Non-selective for beta (some ISA at beta-2) Also blocks alpha-1
Severe hypertension

32

Carvedilol

Non-selective for beta (Also mild alpha-1 block)
CHF/hypertension

33

clinical uses of beta adrenergic antagonists

Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, glaucoma, migraine, hyperthyroidism, performance anxiety

34

Tyramine

component of some foods that is normally rapidly metabolized by monoamine oxidase in the liver and GI tract. Caution with MAOi use. The action of tyramine is similar to amphetamine. It can cause a hypertensive crisis, by releasing large amounts of norepinephrine.