Hypoglycemic angents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypoglycemic angents Deck (19):
1

crystallin zinc (regular)

onset 30 min; peak 1-3 hrs; duration 6-8 hrs

2

Insulin aspart

onset 15 min; peak 1-5 hrs; duration 3-5 hrs

3

Lispro insulin (humalog)

Onset 15 min; peak 1 hr; duration 3-6 hrs

4

Insulin glulisine

Onset <15 min; peak 0.5-2hrs; duration 3-5 hrs

5

NPH Insulin

onset 1-2 hrs; peak 8-10 hrs; duration 12-16 hrs

6

Insulin Detemir

Onset 1-2 hrs; duration 12-24hrs

7

Insulin Glargine

Onset 1hr; duration about 24 hrs; goes into muscle and leaks out

8

Mixtures

NPH/Lispro and NPH/Aspart

9

Factors altering dose

Hyperthyroidism, stress, cessations of physical exercise, increased food intake, drug therapy (HCTZ lower K levels leads to reduction in insulin)

10

Beta Blocker contraindicated

Masks symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremor and HR) and prevents the liver from producing glucose

11

Sulfinyl ureas

Glyburide, Glipizide, Glimepiride; MOA: Blocks K channel and increases insulin secretion; AE: GI upset, hypoglycemia

12

Metformin

Decreases glucose production in liver and increases glucose uptake; AE Metallic taste, GI upset, anorexia, lactic acidosis (impaired renal function)

13

Acarbose

Taken with meals, inhibits alpha-glucosidase (inhibits breakdown of complex carbohydrates (delays glucose absorption)

14

Pioglitazone

Binds to PPAR-gamma receptor; increases transcription of insulin responsive genes, reduced gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptoake; AE: increased fluid retention resulting in heart failure

15

Repaglinide

Stimulates insulin secretion like sulfonylureas but shorter acting, taken with meals

16

Sitagliptan

inhibit metabolism of GIP and GLP-1 (higher levels in blood), stimulates insulin and inhibits glucagon, inhibits dipeptidyl-peptidase 4

17

Canagliflozin

Inhibits SGLT2 in kidney, prevents reabsorption in nephron, AE dehydration, Urinary tract and genital mycotic infections

18

Exenatide

GLP-1 receptor agonist, stimulates insulin secretion and supresses glucagon, Makes pt. feel fuller eating less

19

Pramlintidine

Modulates postprandial glucose levels (amylin analog); combined with other drugs in type 1 and type 2