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Flashcards in after ww2 Deck (71):
1

espionage
western countries were unsure about their _______ alliance

Soviet

2

espionage
which promises did Stalin break?

all the promises made at Yalta, Ukraine in February 1945

3

espionage
what did western countries gather information about?

their "ally"

4

espionage
what type of secret intelligence was gathered?

government production, military productivity, capability, movements

5

espionage
who needed espionage?

essential for all countries involved in the Cold War

6

Gouzenko Affair
who was Igor Gouzenko?

worked in Ottawa for Soviet military intelligence

7

Gouzenko Affair
what did Gouzenko reveal?

a Soviet spy network operating in Canada, Britain, US

8

Gouzenko Affair
what did Gouzenko claim Soviets were doing?

developing a network for ww3

9

Gouzenko Affair
what helped prove Gouzenko's claims?

he had smuggled 100 documents out of Soviet Embassy

10

Gouzenko Affair
what did Gouzenko testify about Canadian spies?

they had been giving nuclear weaponry information to Soviets

11

Gouzenko Affair
what did the Gouzenko Affair lead to and what did the government use to justify it?

arrest of several Canadians; government used War Measures Act to detain and question without charge

12

Gouzenko Affair
how many people were eventually charged?

20

13

Gouzenko Affair
what was the result of the Gouzenko Affair?

put immediate end to plans for the UN to control nuclear arms

14

Gouzenko Affair
what would the US build in retaliation?

arsenal of nuclear weapons for defense

15

Gouzenko Affair
what did the affair lead to?

suspicion and paranoia

16

Gouzenko Affair
who was a suspect?

anyone connected with communism/ socialist leanings

17

Arms Race
what did the Soviet Union announce on September 23, 1949?

that it had detonated its first atomic bomb 2 months ago

18

Arms Race
what did western governments do in defence from the Soviets?

western governments stockpiled nuclear weapons

19

Arms Race
why wouldn't countries attack each other?

in fear of MAD

20

Arms Race
what was MAD?

mutually assured destruction

21

NATO
what was NATO?

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

22

NATO
which countries considered an alliance in the fall of 1948 and why?

US, Canada, other European countries to prevent further Soviet expansion

23

NATO
what did Canada push for the agreement to do?

not only protect members from communist attack but also bind in peaceful coexistence

24

NATO
what was the Canada clause?

maintain peace through economic relationship

25

NATO
when was the agreement effective?

August 24, 1949

26

Warsaw Pact
what did NATO vote for in 1954?

NATO voted to allow west Germany to join alliance, and rearm

27

Warsaw Pact
what did the Soviets do in response to NATO?

created alliance to mirror NATO

28

Warsaw Pact
what happened in 1955 in Warsaw, Poland?

Soviet Union and 7 European countries met in Warsaw, Poland, to sign Warsaw Pact

29

Warsaw Pact
what could members of the Pact not do?

could not withdraw from Warsaw Pact

30

Warsaw Pact
what did members of the Pact agree to do?

aid any member under attack

31

UN Charter
who discussed the Charter on August 14, 1941?

Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill

32

UN Charter
what was the plan for the UN Charter?

for international cooperation; would end war

33

UN Charter
6 months later, 26 Allied nations signed that they would not ______________________________ and to not ______________________________

break ranks to negotiate peace with Axis Powers / increase territory at expense of enemy

34

UN Charter
who met in San Francisco June 1945 and why?

delegates from 50 countries (representing 80% of the world's population) to create United Nations

35

UN Charter
what did the United Nations aim for?

just and peace

36

Korean War
who ruled Korea?

had been ruled by Japan- Japanese empire collapsed after the war; Soviet Union occupied North Korea and made it communist

37

Korean War
what did North Korea want to invade in 1950 but what was the issue?

South Korea which was occupied by the US

38

Korean War
when did North Korea attack and when did they drive down South Koreans by?

June 25, 1950 / by September

39

Korean War
what did the Soviets do when they did not want to fight the US?

armed North Korean army to take South Korea

40

Korean War
what is a proxy war?

a war fought by one country but for and in the interest in another

41

Korean War
what did Harry Truman do in reaction to the North Korean expansion and why?

Soviets were not directly involved in the invasion but Harry Truman saw this as Soviet expansion; called on UN Security Council to intervene

42

Korean War
what did the UN force give to to South Korea?

"rendered every assistance"

43

Korean War
what did Lester B Pearson contribute and why?

sent Canadian aid to South Korea- with the belief that the UN helped weaker states defend themselves

44

Korean War
who led the UN attack, how long did it take, and what was the move after recapturing Seoul?

American general Douglas MacArthur led UN attack and recaptured Seoul in 2 months, then continued north

45

Korean War
what would China not tolerate?

Americans at its border

46

Korean War
what was the result of China's intolerance of Americans?

UN was soon fighting Chinese troops at border and in 2 months were driven out of North Korea

47

Korean War
what happened to Seoul?

ended up in communist control again

48

Korean War
how did the UN retake Seoul?

stopped northern forces

49

Korean War
how many Canadians were killed and wounded?

516 / 1000

50

Korean War
when was the armistice reached?

July 27, 1953

51

Korean War
what happened to Korean borders after the war?

remained mostly unchanged

52

AVRO Arrow
what was Canada's reaction to concern about Soviet attack?

Canada spends most money on military and defense for 15 years

53

AVRO Arrow
what was developed in 1953?

new aircraft for Royal Canadian Air Force

54

AVRO Arrow
which company would build the Arrow (CF-105)?

the AV Roe Canada

55

AVRO Arrow
what was debuted on October 4, 1957 and what was it overshadowed by?

the presentation of the Arrow to the public and press was overshadowed by launch of Soviet Union's Sputnik I

56

AVRO Arrow
what was the Sputnik I?

first artificial satellite to be put into orbit around Earth

57

AVRO Arrow
what did western scientists believe about satellite technology?

could lead to unmanned ballistic missiles

58

AVRO Arrow
when was the Arrow program shut down?

February 20, 1959

59

AVRO Arrow
how many employees were laid off?

more than 15 000

60

AVRO Arrow
which jets did Canada eventually settle for?

US- bought Voodoo fighter jets

61

Pugwash Movement
who was Bertrand Russell?

British mathematician, Nobel Prize winner, philosopher, social critic

62

Pugwash Movement
what conference did Canadian philanthropist Cyrus Eaton hosted in Pugwash, Nova Scotia?

the Conference on Science and World Affairs

63

Pugwash Movement
what did a group of well known and respected scientists and authors including Russell and Einstein publish in 1955?

"Notice to the World" manifesto

64

Pugwash Movement
what was the "Notice to the World" manifesto?

campaign for nuclear disarmament

65

Pugwash Movement
what conference did Russell organize in 1957?

a conference of scientists and public figures interested in reducing the risk of armed conflict

66

Pugwash Movement
when did the Pugwash Organization earn a Nobel Peace Prize?

in 1995

67

UN Declaration of Human Rights
what did John Peters Humphrey set up in 1946?

UN Division of Human Rights

68

UN Declaration of Human Rights
when did the General Assembly adopted the declaration after fine tuning?

December 10, 1948

69

UN Declaration of Human Rights
list rights of the Declaration

right to life and liberty
right to freedom of movement, thought, religion
freedom from slavery, torture, imprisonment without charge
right to education, to a fair trial, to equal pay for work of equal value
right to work, to join a union, to rest
right to a nationality

70

UN Declaration of Human Rights
"all human beings are born __________ in ___________"

free and equal / dignity and rights

71

UN Declaration of Human Rights
regardless of _______________________

race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status

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