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Flashcards in Agnosias Deck (51):
1

Color aphasia

Disproportionate difficulty in linguistic processing of colors associated with dominant parietal damage

2

Neuroanatomical correlate of associative visual object agnosia

Bilateral, inferior occipito-temporal; commonly see with R HH, strokes in PCA

2

Neuroanatomical correlate of color anomia

L occipitotemporal mesial lesion/lingual gyrus, extending into CC

2

Ellis & Young's model of object recognition

Recognition by comparing viewer-centered & object-centered representations to stored structural descriptions of objects known as "object recognition units"

3

Neuroanatomical correlate of pure word deafness

Associated w/ B symmetrical lesions of anterior section of the superior temporal gyri; disconnection of Wernicke's from auditory input

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Agnosia

Modality-specific inability to access semantic knowledge of an object or other stimulus that cannot be attributed to impairment of basic perceptual processes

4

Bilateral astereognosis

Inability to judge the form of an object by touch; cannot demonstrate object knowledge through gesture

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Neuroanatomical correlate of apperceptive visual agnosia

B damage to lateral parts of the occipital lobes

5

Autotopagnosia

Inability to identify body parts (e.g., finger, also L-R confusion), associated with lesions in the dominant parietal lobe

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Apperceptive visual object agnosia

Difficulty recognizing objects b/c of failure to perceive them; can't draw, copy, or match

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Neuroanatomical correlate of color agnosia

B lesion of the ventral visual stream

7

Unilateral astereognosis

Can demonstrate object use or can name if object is placed in other hand; associated with CL primary somatosensory projection area damage

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Neuroanatomical correlate of associative prosopagnosia

Bilateral anterior temporal regions compromising hippocampal & other regions

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Ahylognosia

Impaired discrimination of distinctive qualities of objects such as density, weight, texture, heat

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Bisiach et al.'s domain-specificity of anosognosia

Pts who are blind due to peripheral lesions are aware of their deficits & behave like a blind person; pts w/ central lesions have an associated visuo-specific cognitive impairment-monitoring deficit

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Visual object agnosia is associated with damage to the

L unilateral or B occipitotemporal (lingual, fusiform, & parahippocampal gyri) areas

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Associative agnosia

Elementary visual perception is more or less preserved but access to memory or meaning is impaired

13

Balint's syndrome

Simultanagnosia, ocular apraxia, optic ataxia Caused by large B parietal lesions, esp. if frontal lobes affected

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Semantic-associative auditory sound agnosia

Primarily symantic misidentifications of nonspeech sounds ('train' for automobile engine); associated with LH lesions (perceptual-discriminative is R)

15

Lissauer's two-stage model of perception/recognition

After an elementary sensation occurs there is 1) an object perception (apperception) & 2) object recognition (association)

15

Marr's model of 3 types of representation

1) primal sketch (depicts brightness/darkness) 2) 2.5D sketch (viewer-centered) 3) 3D sketch (object-centered)

15

What visual impairment is commonly comorbid with associative agnosia?

Right HH

16

Neuroanatomical correlate of phonagnosia

Unilateral RH pts demonstrate difficulties with familiar voices; temporal lobe impairment in either hemisphere can lead to more general voice discrimination

18

Geschwind's disconnection theory of anosognosia

RH is normally poorly linked to speech areas, further weakened by RH damage; confabulation is LH attempt to explain what pt can't comprehend

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Pure word deafness

Unable to comprehend spoken language with relatively spared comprehension of nonverbal sounds

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Color anomia

Loss of color naming, often in conjunction with alexia w/o agraphia, assoc. w/ R HH

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Apperceptive agnosia

Deficits in the early stages of perceptual processing; pats do not perceive objects normally so can't recognize them

24

Prosopagnosia is associated with what other deficits?

Color agnosia, L upper quadrantanopsia

25

The term agnosia was originally coined by

Freud (1891)

27

Achromatopsia is associated with what other conditions?

Visual agnosia & prosopagnosia

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Neuroanatomical correlate of apperceptive prosopagnosia

Bilateral cortex & WM in occipito-temporal gyrus, typically including the fusiform face area

29

Pathological processes that may be associated with apperceptive visual agnosia

CM poisoning, mercury, cardiac arrest, B strokes, B artery occlusion, B posterior cortical atrophy

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Amorphognosia

Impaired identification of an object by proprioception/recognition by size & shape

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Optic aphasia

Visually presented objects can be recognized by not named, & auditory & tactile naming ok

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Phonagnosia

Inability to recognize familiar persons' voices

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Associative visual object agnosia

Pts demonstrate that they can perceive but not recognize; can draw or match

34

Ocular apraxia

An inability to shift gaze voluntarily from a fixation point; pts behave as though mesmerized by original object; gaze may be shifted if close eyes

35

Pure word deafness may evolve from what type of aphasia?

Wernicke's

37

Damasio's model of agnosia

Perception involves evocation of neural activity pattern in primary & 1-st order association cortex which corresponds to various perceptual features; downstream features are combined in 'local convergence zones' Predicts that there can be no disorder of object recognition w/o perceptual dysfx

39

Conscious awareness system (CAS; Schacter & McGlynn)

Conscious experience of remembering, knowing, perceiving, comprehending; requires activation of specific/distinct system which interacts w/ modular systems concerned with specific function Low activation of normally highly activated system would result in no input to the CAS => anosognosia

40

Tactile asymboly

Impaired tactile recognition of objects with intact perception of size, shape, density, weight, texture, heat

41

Neuroanatomical correlate of achromatopsia

Unilateral or bilateral lesions to the ventromedial region of the occipital lobe with involvement of the lingual & fusiform gyri (i.e., visual association cortex)

42

Amorphognosia

Inability to identify an object by proprioception due to poor perception of its physical attributes; cannot be explained on the bases of concurrent hypesthesia

44

Sensory amusia

Unable to appreciate various characteristics of heard music due to unilateral temporal lobe lesion

45

Perceptual-discriminative auditory sound agnosia

RH analogue to pure-word deafness; primarily acoustic misidentifications of nonspeech sounds ('whistling' for bird-song)

46

Optic ataxia

Impairment of visually guided movements as a result of a defect in stereopsis (depth perception); pts may not be able to read in methodical visual sweeps

47

Dorsal vs. ventral simultanagnosia

Dorsal = cannot see >1 object at a time caused by bilateral parieto-occipital lesion Ventral = cannot appreciate entire stimulus; cannot attend to whole picture; caused by damage to the left inferior temporo-occipital area Part of Balint's syndrome

48

What type of amnesic syndrome is more likely to be associated with anosognosia?

Diencephalic/frontal lobe damage but not mesial temporal lobe damage/thalamic damage

49

Achromatopsia

Loss of color vision due to CNS disease, but can name color of object described verbally

50

Auditory affective agnosia

Impaired comprehension of prosody; assoc. w/ R temporoparietal lesions & neglect

51

Disconnection model of agnosia

Agnosia results from disconnection between visual & verbal processes (this theory can't account for fact that most agnosics show abnormal verbal & nonverbal processing of viewed objects)