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Flashcards in TBI Deck (41):

Risk factors for TBI

Ages 15-24 & 64+, men >women, ETOH, drug abuse, prior brain injury, SES/education, unemployment, divorce, LD/ADHD, psych illness, heart disease & HTN


Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

Assesses degree of impaired consciousness via responsiveness level in eye opening, motor mvmt, & verbal communication


What are the advantages of using GCS score for measuring TBI severity?

scores can be determined with 1st 24 hours, predictive of early important outcomes & later functional outcomes


What are the disadvantages of using GCS score for measuring TBI severity?

which GCS score to use (post-resuscitation, ER admission, etc.), can be affected by early management (intubation, sedating meds), limited in pts w/ aphasia or facial injuries


What are factors that complicate the use of initial GCS as a prognostic indicator?

Drugs/ETOH, sedation, intubation, facial injuries, echymosis, delayed deterioration (e.g., slow bleeding SDH)


Time to follow commands following TBI is predictive of

Global outcomes, NP functioning, personal independence, employment


What are the advantages to using time to return to conscious state as a marker for TBI severity?

takes into account early complications, can be obtained during early stages of recovery


What are the disadvantages to using time to return to conscious state as a marker for TBI severity?

interval can affected by sedation, difficult to interpret behaviors & fluctuations in MS, not immediately available for early prediction of outcome, no commonly agreed upon classification scheme, often not available to later-treating physicians


Posttraumatic amnesia

Phase of recovery from TBI during which the patient is responsive, but acutely confused, disoriented, & unable to form & retain new memories


PTA is predictive of

NP outcome, independent living states, return to work


Using duration of unconsciousness, what is a mild, mod, sev TBI?

Mild: 24 hrs


Using GCS scores, what is a mild/mod/sev TBI?

Mild: 13-15
Mod: 9-12
Sev: 3-8


Using duration of PTA, what is a mild/mod/sev TBI?

Mild: 7 days


Areas of the brain that are most vulnerable to diffuse axonal injury

Frontal & temporal lobes, BG, perinventricular zones, CC, brainstem fiber tracts, superior cerebellar peduncles


Glasgow Outcome Scale

Vegetative state
Severe disability (requires assistance to meet basic needs)
Moderate disability (unable to return to non-sheltered work or resume other major roles)
Good recovery


Factors predictive of functional outcome after TBI

Pre-injury employment status, demographic variables, injury severity, CC atrophy, physical impairments, early cognitive status, post-injury depression, impaired self-awareness, early fx status, family support, post-acute brain injury rehab


Risk factors for substance abuse following TBI

pre-injury history, onset of depression since injury, better physical functioning, male gender, young age, uninsured, single


Negative predictors of return-to-work following TBI

severity of injury, age >40, low education, greater physical or cognitive impairment, personality change, substance abuse


Positive predictors of return-to-work following TBI

multidisciplinary team approach during acute rehab, socially inclusive work environment, environmental modifications, focus position on strengths of the individual


ACRM mild TBI definition

A traumatically induced physiological disruption of brain fx: any LOC, any loss of memory for events before/after accident, any alteration in MS at time of accident, focal neuro deficits that may/may not be transient

Severity of injury does not exceed: LOC of 30 mins or less, initial GCS of 13-15 after 30 mins, PTA not >24 hrs


Psychological causes of chronic postconcussion syndrome

Diagnosis threat
Expectation as etiology
"Good old days" bias
Nocebo affect



Repetitive muscle stimulation by electricity that prolongs contact during electrocution


Second Impact Syndrome

When a 2nd TBI is sustained before the physiological reactions to the prior injury have resolved; diffuse swelling within hours of even mild injury that is likely the result of compromised cerebral autoregulation


What constitutes primary, secondary, tertiary, & quaternary damage secondary to blast injuries?

Primary - blast wave
Secondary - flying debris
Tertiary - blast winds throw individuals into other things
Quaternary - anything else, like burns, toxic inhalations, crush injuries


The younger the child at the time of TBI, the more likely to display

Brain swelling, hypoxic-ischemic insult, diffuse rather than focal injuries


Academic performance in older children following TBI

Academic decline in behavioral terms with increased risk of retention, special ed placement, etc.

Achievement tests tend to be insensitive to their academic changes


Academic performance following TBI in younger children

More likely to demonstrate deficits on standardized achievement tests than older children


Academic performance following TBI in children is predicted by

Premorbid academic fx, postinjury NP fx, postinjury bx adjustment, family environment, age at injury (preschool injury assoc. w/ school failure & slower acquisition of academic skills)


Factors related to pediatric TBI outcome

Severity, pre- & post-injury family status, treatment received, premorbid fx


Social functioning following pediatric TBI

Rated as less socially competent & lonelier than peers, poor social outcomes persist over time, relationship b/t injury & social outcome moderated by poor family fx, lower SES, lack of family resoources

Children w/ frontal lobe injury more likely to have problems


There is empirical support for what treatments following pediatric TBI?

Operant conditioning in decreasing aggressive behaviors, school-based social interventions, cognitive remediation for attention skills, involvement of family member as member of treatment team


Galveston Orientation & Amnesia Test (GOAT)

Test of orientation; starts at 100 & failing items of orientation result in subtractions


Contusions are seen most in what areas?

Orbitofrontal cortex, anterior temporal lobe, posterior portion of superior temporal gyrus & adjacent parietal opercular area


Diffuse axonal injury (DAI)

Breaking/shearing/stretching of myelinated axons due to acceleration/deceleration & rotational injuries


Excitatory amino acids that are produced after DAI have an affinity for receptors that are especially prevalent in the _____ & ______.

Hippocampus & thalamus


Increase in risk in dementia with aging after history of severe TBI

4-5x higher


Risk of 2nd TBI following 1st



Low velocity GSW injuries create contusions at

Entry & contrecoup points


High velocity GSW injuries are more likely to create

Diffuse injury secondary to shock waves & pressure effects


Pathway of electrical current most likely to result in CNS disturbance

Head to foot


Most damage caused by primary blast wave injuries occurs in

Organs that contain air (ears), fluid (stomach/intestines), tissue/air, tissue/fluid interface