Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea
Smoking, ETOH, use of sedative meds, lying supine, sleep deprivation, medical conditions such as hypothyroidism & acromegaly
What is the cognitive outcome of treated obstructive sleep apnea
visual memory & exec fx significantly improve to normal, attention & WM remain impaired
Stage 2 sleep
Theta w/ K-complex & sleep spindles
A breathing disorder of temporarily stopped breathing caused by upper airway obstruction or a central disorder
Biggest decreases in blood flow to the brain during slow-wave sleep are seen in which brain areas?
Thalamic, midbrain, brainstem & cerebellum
Inadequate sleep primarily affects
Sustained attention/vigilance, coordination, emotional regulation, possible effects on memory retrieval, aspects of exec fx
Neurocognitive effects of sleep apnea
Impairments in attention & concentration, motor coordination, depression, ADHD symptoms Hypoxia may cause memory & EF deficits
Wakefulness is associated with what type of brain waves?
Alpha & Beta
Stage 1 sleep
Alpha, Theta, & Beta waves
Stages 3-4 sleep
During which stages of sleep do parasomnias occur?
3 & 4
During REM sleep, what areas of the brain are most active?
Brainstem, midbrain, thalamus, BG, secondary & auditory cortex