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Flashcards in Seizures Deck (83)
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Paracentral seizures

Originate on mesial surface of parietal lobe, CL genital sensations & postural motor activity, frequently seconarily generative


Risk factors for psychogenic seizures

H/o sexual abuse, epilepsy, psych disorder, head injury/PCS, model for seizure disorder, traumatic life course, family discord/academic stress


Common etiologies of perinatal seizures

Toxemia, infection, congenital defects, difficult birth


Possible distinguishing semiology for pseudoseizures

Acute emotional disturbance may initiate, rare when sleeping or alone, gradual onset, crying during ictus, occasional talking, asynchronous mvmts, react to avoidance testing, personal injury rare, infrequent micturition & defecation, no ictal epileptiform EEG abnormality


Seizures in the frontal opercular region

Epigastric aura, fear, salivation, repetitive chewing mvmts, repetitive swallowing, speech arrest, autonomic symptoms


Todd's paresis

Focal loss of function in whatever region just experience a seizure; loss of motor function is most common, can range from weakness to full paralysis


What is the most common type of seizure?

Complex partial


Factors that increase risk of cognitive deficits in seizure disorders

AED toxicity, symptomatic epilepsy, seizure type & frequency, younger age at onset, poor control, temporal lobe epilepsy surgery


Tonic seizures

Sudden onset of bilateral tonic extension or flexion of the head, trunk, or extremities for several seconds; typically occur during drowsiness or just after falling asleep/waking up


Early signs of mesial temporal lobe seizure

Staring, behavioral arrest, automatisms, motor restlessness, nonforced head deviation


Orbitofrontal lobe seizures

Usu. complex partial seizures that being with motor or gestural automatisms, peri-ictal urination is typical, may see vocalizations, intense fear, complex motor acts


Cognitive effects of Tegretol

May improve processing speed, psychomotor speed, problem-solving & decrease aggression & emotional lability


Neurological & demographic variables that are predictive of post-surgical seizure freedom

Unilateral EEG abnormalities, presence of exclusively IL temporal inter-ictal epileptiform discharges, presence of structural abnormalities, younger age at time of surgery, shorter duration of pre-operative epilepsy


Variables improving quality of life among epilepsy patients

Reducing seizure frequency, reducing AEDs, promote cognitive reserve/activity, decrease psychiatric symptomatology, reduce family/social/cultural stigma/discrimination


Jacksonian motor seizure

Simple partial seizure in which motor symptoms progress or 'march' from fingers to arm to face


Supplementary motor area seizures

Brief, typically include postural symptoms, often refractory to AEDs


Absence seizures (petit mal)

Brief episodes of impairment of consciousness with no warning & short duration no aura or post-ictal fatigue


Late signs of mesial temporal lobe seizure

Arrest reaction, restlessness, staring, dystonic posturing of arms


EEG alpha waves

8-13 CPS/hz Normal dominant/background activity, reflects an anxiety-free state Lost with eye opening, falling asleep, meds that affect mental function, slows in elderly & in nearly ever brain-based neuro illness


Most common underlying pathology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

Mesial temporal lobe sclerosis


Cognitive side effects of Dilantin

Psychomotor speed, memory & problem solving; may result in progressive encephalopathy w/ accompanying deterioration in intellectual fx


Which anticonvulsant has the worst cognitive side effects?



Simple partial seizures

Involve at least 1 focal area of the brain, do not impair consciousness


Corpus callostomy is limited to pts with what types of seizures

Unknown seizure focus or multiple seizure foci with debilitating seizures that are frequently atonic/clonic in nature


Childhood absence epilepsy

Onset 4-8 years old, may remit in adulthood Seizures are brief staring spells w/ loss of awareness Increased rates of LDs, ADHD, anxiety d/o, mild deficits in attention/exec, delayed & immediate memory, visuospatial


EEG beta waves

>13 hz; prominent with concentration, anxiety, under effects of minor tranquilizers


The majority of refractory epilepsies have focal seizures that arise from where?

Temporal lobe


Lennox-Gastaut syndrome

Onset ages 2-8 yrs Triad: atonic, atypical absence, tonic seizures MR, autistic features, bx problems common, developmental delay can predate onset of seizures or become apparent later Common to have multiple seizures daily, status epilepticus is common


Risk factors for complex febrile seizures evolving into later seizures

Family hx of afebrile seizures, some kind of neuro involvement prior to febrile seizures, abnormal EEG


Occipital lobe epilepsy

Elementary visual hallucinations usually in periphery of CL visual field Amaurosis, scotomas, hemianopsias, quadrantanopsias Tonic/clonic eye deviation, head deviation, blinking, sensation of eye mvmt, nystagmoid eye mvmts Typically spread to temporal, frontal, supplementary motor, or parietal areas