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Flashcards in Learning disorders Deck (21):

What are treatment approaches to dyslexia?

Drilling in phonics-based approach to reading, extra time on written exams, do not downgrade spelling errors


Attentional dyslexia

Naming a letter is harder when it is accompanied by other, irrelevant letters


1987 definition of learning disorder

Disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition & use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, or of social skills Intrinsic to individual and presumed to be due to CNS dysfx


According to Pennington's model of LDs, damage in spatial reasoning is associated with

Math/handwriting deficits (posterior RH)


Rourke & other theorists treat LD as a disorder of

Information processing


Insight/judgment/comportment disorder (Rourke)

Disruption of thought, judgment, comportment ('conduct disorder'); may reflect deficient development of frontal networks


According to Pennington's model of LDs, damage in social cognition is associated with

Autism spectrum (limbic, orbital, RH)


According to Pennington's model of LDs, damage in long-term memory is associated with

Memory disorder/amnesia (hippocampus, amygdala)


Nonverbal learning disorders

Problems with math, handwriting, social, visual spatial functioning


Four categories of symptoms of learning disorders according to Pennington's model

Primary (core symptoms, universal specific, persistent) Correlated (same etiology/affect different brain systems) Secondary (consequences of primary or correlated symptoms) Artificial (appear associated but not causally related)


Visual processing model of dyslexia

Posits that the maagnocellular visual system fails to appropriately inhibit the parvocellular system during saccades, resulting in a prolonged afterimage that interferes with reading


According to Pennington's model of LDs, damage in phonological processing is associated with

Dyslexia (L perisylvian region)


Nonverbal processing disorder (Rourke)

Disruption of ability to perceive or produce nonverbal info; reflective of dysfx in neurocognitive networks of RH


Surface dyslexia

Read by well-established phonological rules; trouble with nonwords and visual aspects of word recognition; difficulty reading irregular words Direct lexical route is impaired, depend on indirect route


Attention deficits disorder (Rourke)

Disruption of arousal-attention-concentration; assoc. w/ dysfx in RH and or B dysfx and/or RAS


Deep dylexia

Read familiar words well (esp. nouns) but make many semantic paralexias in oral reading (i.e., say "sheep" for "mutton")rely on imageability, concreteness, & word frequency


Neuropathological studies of dyslexia have shown

Planum temporale symmetry, neuronal ectopias & dysplasias, disconnection of angular gyrus with other reading-related regions, decreased activation of posterior brain regions that encompass both visual & language areas w/ increased anterior activation


Developmental course associated with dyslexia

May have speech delay, articulation difficulties, problems learning letter names or color names, problems remembering phone #s/verbal sequences; remain slower than peers


Verbal processing disorder (Rourke)

Disruption of language skills in auditory or visual modality, assoc. w/ dysfx or frank damage to language networks in LH


According to Pennington's model of LDs, damage in executive functions is associated with

ADD (prefrontal region)


Rourke feels that there is quite an overlap between NVLD and what other disorder?

Asperger's (considers autism to be a separate entity)