Discrepancies between test data & behavior that may suggest malingering
Test data vs. known patterns of brain function, test data vs. observed behavior, test data vs. reliable collateral reports, test data vs. documented background history
A Halstead-Retain impairment index score of .8-1.0 is considered
Who conducted the first systematic study into the cause of individual differences?
Kaplan's process approach
Calls for developing standardized methods for observing, scoring, & analyzing qualitative features of behavior
Notion that given behaviors are controlled by specific areas in the brain
Hypothesized that a relatively small # of basic centers in the brain could be combined through connections to explain higher functions
Although the brain analyzes sensory events through multiple, parallel channels that do not converge on a single brain region, we perceive a unified representation of our experiences
Who is credited with the 1st experimental approach to psychology?
Who offered the 1st model of neuropsychology of language?
Describe the American (actuarial) approach to neuropsychology
Based primarily on psychometric properties, normative data, & 'organicity'
When was the term neuropsychology first used?
1913 by Sir William Osler
Definite malingered neurocognitive disorder (Slick et al.)
External incentives, examinee performs below change on a forced choice test, no psych or neuro disorder to account for performance
The first general localization theory was posited by
Gall & Spurzheim
Who originated the mind-body problem (dualism vs. monism)?
Give the descriptor for each of the following scores on Wechsler tests: 129
129 = very superior
An MMPI F t-score of ____ is suggestive of malingering
What are some common interpretation errors?
Overgeneralizing, failure to show reduced performance when not given an appropriate exam, confirmatory bias, misuse of salient data, over- & under-interpretation, under-utilization of base rates
Describe the Russian (clinical-theoritical) approach to neuropsychology
Heavy reliance on clinical expertise, minimal normative data, observation key; lacks objective standardization or procedures
Luria's 3 functional units
1) brainstem structures (responsible for regulating cortical tone) 2) cerebral cortex posterior to central sulcus (responsible for receiving, organizing, & storing stimuli) 3) cerebral cortex anterior to central sulcus (responsible for emitting motor responses, formulating intentions, planning & evaluating behavior)
Who was the first person to develop a formal theory of behavior?
Aristotle; proposed a nonmaterial psyche
Discrepancies in self-report that may suggest malingering
Discrepant w/ documented history, discrepant with known patters of brain function, discrepant with behavioral observations, discrepant with info obtained from informant, exaggerated or fabricated psych dysfx