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Flashcards in Psychopathology Deck (37):

Schizophreniform disorder

Symptoms of schizophrenia that last less than 6 months


Brain anatomy studies of autism-spectrum disorders have consistently found

Increased brain volume, increased level of serotonin plasma, delayed maturation of the frontal lobes, enlargement of lateral ventricles, cerebellar abnormalities


Most effective treatment for schizophrenia

Family therapy + meds


Executive functioning deficits in autism spectrum disorders

Deficits in mental flexibility & planning, switching & strategy use, but no inhibition


Attention functioning in autism-spectrum disorders

Able to sustain attention, but may require environmental supports of self-selected activity or strong incentives Display delayed orienting of attention Inconsistent findings in ability to shift attention


What are the 4 neurofunctional impairments of autism proposed by Waterhouse et al.?

1. Canalesthesia - fragmented processing of incoming information from the different sensory modalities 2. Impaired affective assignment 3. Asociality 4. Extended selective attention


Following Crow's schema (1980), name the symptoms, NP profile, prognosis in Type I schizophrenia

Positive symptoms predominate; essentially normal brain structure; most are fairly intact neurocognitively, relatively good response to treatment


Good prognostic indicators for schizophrenia

Availability of social support, good premorbid adjustment, acute onset, LOS, female, precipitation events, mood disturbances to, good inter-episode functioning, minimal residual symptoms, normal neurological functioning, family hx of mood disorders, no family hx of schizophrenia


Memory functioning in autism-spectrum disorders

Verbal memory tends to be poor, visuospatial memory tends to be intact with the exception of faces & social scenes Source memory is impaired, but may be dependent on type of context info that is to be remembered Working memory findings are mixed Episodic memory is impaired, but may be motivationally dependent


Suggested etiologies of ADHD

Food allergies, high lead levels, ETOH/nicotine prenatal exposure, prefrontal cortex, genetics


Somatization disorder

4 pain symptoms, 2 GI, 1 sex, 1 neuro; vague complaints; onset prior to age 30; often see anxiety, depression, suicide


Side effects of CNS stimulants

Insomnia, decreased appetite, stomachaches Motor/vocal tics (30-70%) or unmasks TS OC symptoms Growth suppression


Diagnostic criteria for manic episode

Elevated, expansive, irritable mood last at least one week 3+: inflated self-esteem/grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, more talkative or pressured speech, flight of ideas or racing thoughts, distractibility, increase in goal-directed activity, sig. stress or impairment


Brief psychotic disorder

Symptoms don't last longer than 1 month


Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia

2+ characteristic symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms Persist for at least 6 mos Social/occupational dysfx


One theory posits that the underlying cause of schizophrenia is excessive stimulation of what type of synapses?



Capgrass syndrome

Delusional belief that a person has been replaced by an imposter Associated with nondominant parietal lobe lesions


Fregoli syndrome

Belief that the same person know to the pt is able to disguise or change him/herself into other people that the pt meets Seen in schizophrenia & damage to R frontal or L temporoparietal areas


Structural abnormalities in OCD

Orbital frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus


Which is considered more significant prognostically in schizophrenia: loosening of associations or circumstantiality?

Loosening of associations


Reduplicative paramnesia

Believe that the place or location has been duplicated Assoc. w/ bifrontal lesions, often w/ more diffuse RH damage


4 principle components of emotion

Physiology - CNS & ANS activity & resulting changes in neurohormonal & visceral activity Distinctive motor behavior - facial expression, tone of voice, posture Self-reported cognition - cognitive processes inferred from self-reported rankings Unconscious behavior - cognitive processes that influence bx of which we are not aware


Conversion disorder

1+ symptoms of motor/sensory dysfx without any underlying organic pathology


NP functioning in bipolar disorder

Abnormalities in attention seen in symptomatic pts & persist in remission in measures of sustained attention & inhibitory control Verbal memory may be impaired even in euthymic pts, visual memory deficits are variable Exec fx impaired in symptomatic pts, may be normal in fully-recovered pts


Rett's disorder

-Developmental regression seen by age 4 -Life-long communicative & bx problems -Decelerated head growth, loss of hand skills (replaced by stereotypical hand movements), unccordinated gait/trunk, severe lang impairment, psychomotor retardation -Reported only in females


Biological model of bipolar disorder

Structural brain abnormalities, genetic factors, high NE, low serotonin, improper transportation of sodium & potassium ions b/t the outside & inside of neuron's membrane


Barkley's 3-tiered model of ADHD

1) behavioral inhibition 2) working memory, internalization of speech, regulation of arousal & emotions, reconsitution 3) Motor control, organization, & flexibility


Rehm's model of depression

Deficits in self-centered behavior Selective attention to negative events in environment, selective attention to immediate not long-range outcomes of bx, stringent standards for self-evaluation, insufficient self-reinforcement, excessive self-punishment


Medical causes of catatonic disorder include

TBI, cerebrovascular disease, encephalitis, metabolic conditions


Following Crow's schema (1980), name the symptoms, NP profile, prognosis in Type II schizophrenia

Negative symptoms predominate, structure brain abnormalities, impaired cognitive functions, poor treatment response


Personality change due to general medical condition

Labile type, disinhibited type, aggressive type, apathetic type, paranoid type, unspecified


Abnormal brain structures in patients with schizophrenia

Smaller frontal lobes, smaller temporal lobes, abnormalities in limbic system & BG, enlarged ventricles, smaller amounts of cortical gray matter, abnormal blood flow in certain areas (esp. frontal lobes)


Wolpe's classical conditioning model of depression

Low rate of response contingent reinforcement results in neurotic depression


Functional imaging studies of autism spectrum disorders have shown

Hypoactivity in amygdala in processing of social stimuli, of facial processing area of fusiform gyrus, medial & dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Activiation of language areas, but less coordinated in their activity


Neuropsychological functioning in autism

Poor verbal abilities, abstraction, receptive language worse than expressive


NP functioning in schizophrenia

Poor frontal lobe functioning, memory deficits, slower reaction time; cognitive deficits may pre-date onset of obvious symptoms & diagnosis of illness


Origins of organically-based mood symptoms

Substances (e.g., PCP, hallucinogens), endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism), carcinoma of pancreas, viral illnesses, structural disease of brain