Basic neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

ABPP > Basic neuroanatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic neuroanatomy Deck (71):
1

Brodmann's areas: 44, 45

Broca's area

2

What are Mesulam's 5 large-scale networks?

1. Spatial Attention (RH) 2. Language (LH) 3. Memory-emotion (limbic) 4. Exec fx-comportment (prefrontal) 5. Face-and-object ID (ventral occipitotemporal)

3

The CNS arises from which germ cell layer?

Ectoderm, which folds over the form the neural tube

3

The spinomesencephalic is involved in

Pain modulation

3

Brodmann's areas: 17

Primary visual cortex

4

The spinoreticular tract provides info on

Emotional & arousal aspects of pain

4

Brodmann's areas: 41

Primary auditory cortex

5

MCA inferior division supplies

Cortex below Sylvian fissure including lateral temporal lobe & variable portion of parietal

6

Which thalamic nucleus is involved in the visual pathway?

Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)

6

What information is carried by the anterolateral system?

Pain/nociception & temperature

6

Brodmann's areas: 38, 39

Parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex

7

Which thalamic nucleus is involved in the auditory pathway?

Medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)

7

Brodmann's areas: 4

Primary motor cortex in precentral gyrus

7

Brodmann's areas: 8

Frontal eye fields

7

Brodmann's areas: 9, 10, 11, 12

Prefrontal association areas

10

Which layer of neocortex receives inputs from the thalamus?

IV - Granular/internal granular layer

10

Which layer of neocortex sends outputs to subcortical structures other than the thalamus?

V - Large pyramidal/internal pyramidal layer

11

Dorsal vs. ventral nerve roots

Dorsal = afferent sensory signals, Ventral = efferent motor signals

12

Which layer of neocortex sends outputs to the thalamus?

VI - Polymorphic/multiform layer

13

What information is carried by the dorsal column/medial lemniscus pathway?

Proprioception, fine/discriminative touch, vibration, join position sense

14

Which thalamic nucleus receives somatosensory input from the body?

Ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL)

15

When below the midbrain, what directions do the following terms refer to? a) rostral b) caudal c) dorsal d) ventral

a) superior b) inferior c) posterior d) anterior

16

Main branches of the internal carotid arteries

Ophthalmic, PComm, anterior choroidal, ACA, MCA

16

Which intracranial arteries are particularly prone to narrowing in HTN?

Lenticulostriate arteries

17

Which layers of neocortex contain mostly cortical-cortical connections?

II - Small pyramidal/external granular layer III - Medium pyramidal/external pyramidal layer

18

Signs of UMN lesions

Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, + Babinski, spastic paralysis

19

Major branches of the anterior cerebral artery

Pericallosal, callosomarginal, recurrent artery of Heubner

20

Brown-Sequard syndrome

Hemisection of the spinal cord; results in CL loss of pain & temp below lesion, IL loss of discriminative touch & vibration below lesion, & IL motor paralysis below lesion

21

MCA superior division supplies

Cortex above the Sylvian fissure including lateral frontal lobe & peri-Rolandic cortex

22

What structures make up the mesencephalon?

Cerebral peduncles/red nucleus, midbrain tectum, midbrain tegmentum

22

The spinomesencephalic tract projects to what structures?

Midbrain periaqueductal gray matter & superior colliculi

23

Which thalamic nucleus is involved in explicit memory?

Anterior nucleus

24

Which thalamic nucleus receives somatosensory input from the face/cranial nerves?

Ventral posteriomedial nucleus (VPM)

25

The sympathetic nervous system arises from what spinal cord levels?

T1-L2

25

Brodmann's areas: 5, 7

Posterior parietal association areas

26

Basal forebrain

Region at the base of the frontal lobes that provides the major cholinergic innervation to the neocortex & medial temporal lobes; includes nucleus basalis of Meynert, diagonal band of Broca, septal nuclei

27

Branches of the posterior cerebral artery

Thalamoperforator, thalamogeniculate, posterior choroidal

28

What neurotransmitter does the parasympathetic nervous system release onto end organs?

Acetylcholine

30

Brodmann's areas: 42

Secondary auditory cortex

31

What percentage of the population have a complete Circle of Willis?

25%

32

The superior and inferior colliculi are involved in

Superior - visual attention, inferior - auditory attention

33

Where does the dorsal column/medial lemniscus pathway decussate?

Medulla

34

Brodmann's areas: 18

Secondary visual cortex

35

The internal carotid arteries arise from

Common carotids

36

The vertebral arteries arise from

Subclavian arteries

38

The parasympathetic nervous system arises from what spinal cord levels?

S2 to S4 & CNs

39

Signs of LMN lesions

Atrophy, fasciculations, hyporeflexia, hypotonia

41

What are the 2 sections of the rhombencephalon?

1. Metecephalon (pons & cerebellum) 2. Myelencephalon (medulla)

42

Situs inversus

Complete reversal of cerebral laterality & specialization in which the left hemisphere is dominant for visuospatial processing & the right hemisphere is dominant for language

43

Archicortex

Allocortex; 3-layered hippocampal cortex & dentate gyrus; oldest region of cortex

46

Which thalamic nuclei serve as relay loops for basal ganglia & cerebellar inputs to the cortex?

Ventral anterior (VA) & lateral (VL) nuclei

47

When above the midbrain, what directions do the following terms refer to? a) rostral b) caudal c) dorsal d) ventral

a) anterior b) posterior c) superior d) inferior

50

What are the 3 sections of the developing brain?

1. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) 2. Mesencephalon (midbrain) 3. Prosencephalon (forebrain)

51

Paleocortex

Allocortex; olfactory cortex

52

Where does the anterolateral system decussate?

Spinal cord

53

Brodmann's areas: 22

Wernicke's area

54

Transection of the spinal cord leads to

Complete loss of sensation & motor function below the lesion

56

Which layer of neocortex contains mostly dendrites & axons from other layers?

I - Molecular layer

57

What percentage of left handed individuals are L-hemisphere dominant for language?

60%; 20% are mixed

58

What neurotransmitter does the sympathetic nervous system release onto end organs?

Norepinephrine

60

What cognitive functions are associated with the insula?

Previously acquired memories, non-automatic word processing, taste

61

Main branches of the basilar artery

PCA, SCA, AICA, PICA

62

Heschl's gyrus is larger on which side of the brain?

R

63

What are the 2 sections of the prosencephalon?

1. Telencephalon (hemispheres) 2. Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)

64

What are the divisions of the corpus callosum?

Rostrum, genu, body, splenium

65

Decorticate vs. decrebrate

Decorticate = lesion is higher, flexed arms point up toward cortex Decerebrate = lesion is lower, extended arms point down

66

Membrane that separates the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles from the CC to the fornix

Septum pellucidum

68

Prefrontal, post parietal, lateral temporal, portion of hippocampal cortices are all considered

Neocortex

69

Brodmann's areas: 1, 2, 3

Primary somatosensory cortex in postcentral gyrus

70

What artery gives rise to the lenticulostriate arteries?

MCA

71

Which thalamic nucleus is part of a major limbic-frontal relay pathway?

Mediodorsal nucleus (MD)