Brodmann's areas: 44, 45
What are Mesulam's 5 large-scale networks?
1. Spatial Attention (RH) 2. Language (LH) 3. Memory-emotion (limbic) 4. Exec fx-comportment (prefrontal) 5. Face-and-object ID (ventral occipitotemporal)
The CNS arises from which germ cell layer?
Ectoderm, which folds over the form the neural tube
The spinomesencephalic is involved in
Brodmann's areas: 17
Primary visual cortex
The spinoreticular tract provides info on
Emotional & arousal aspects of pain
Brodmann's areas: 41
Primary auditory cortex
MCA inferior division supplies
Cortex below Sylvian fissure including lateral temporal lobe & variable portion of parietal
Which thalamic nucleus is involved in the visual pathway?
Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
What information is carried by the anterolateral system?
Pain/nociception & temperature
Brodmann's areas: 38, 39
Parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex
Which thalamic nucleus is involved in the auditory pathway?
Medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)
Brodmann's areas: 4
Primary motor cortex in precentral gyrus
Brodmann's areas: 8
Frontal eye fields
Brodmann's areas: 9, 10, 11, 12
Prefrontal association areas
Which layer of neocortex receives inputs from the thalamus?
IV - Granular/internal granular layer
Which layer of neocortex sends outputs to subcortical structures other than the thalamus?
V - Large pyramidal/internal pyramidal layer
Dorsal vs. ventral nerve roots
Dorsal = afferent sensory signals, Ventral = efferent motor signals
Which layer of neocortex sends outputs to the thalamus?
VI - Polymorphic/multiform layer
What information is carried by the dorsal column/medial lemniscus pathway?
Proprioception, fine/discriminative touch, vibration, join position sense
Which thalamic nucleus receives somatosensory input from the body?
Ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL)
When below the midbrain, what directions do the following terms refer to? a) rostral b) caudal c) dorsal d) ventral
a) superior b) inferior c) posterior d) anterior
Main branches of the internal carotid arteries
Ophthalmic, PComm, anterior choroidal, ACA, MCA
Which intracranial arteries are particularly prone to narrowing in HTN?
Which layers of neocortex contain mostly cortical-cortical connections?
II - Small pyramidal/external granular layer III - Medium pyramidal/external pyramidal layer
Signs of UMN lesions
Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, + Babinski, spastic paralysis
Major branches of the anterior cerebral artery
Pericallosal, callosomarginal, recurrent artery of Heubner
Hemisection of the spinal cord; results in CL loss of pain & temp below lesion, IL loss of discriminative touch & vibration below lesion, & IL motor paralysis below lesion
MCA superior division supplies
Cortex above the Sylvian fissure including lateral frontal lobe & peri-Rolandic cortex
What structures make up the mesencephalon?
Cerebral peduncles/red nucleus, midbrain tectum, midbrain tegmentum
The spinomesencephalic tract projects to what structures?
Midbrain periaqueductal gray matter & superior colliculi
Which thalamic nucleus is involved in explicit memory?
Which thalamic nucleus receives somatosensory input from the face/cranial nerves?
Ventral posteriomedial nucleus (VPM)
The sympathetic nervous system arises from what spinal cord levels?
Brodmann's areas: 5, 7
Posterior parietal association areas
Region at the base of the frontal lobes that provides the major cholinergic innervation to the neocortex & medial temporal lobes; includes nucleus basalis of Meynert, diagonal band of Broca, septal nuclei
Branches of the posterior cerebral artery
Thalamoperforator, thalamogeniculate, posterior choroidal
What neurotransmitter does the parasympathetic nervous system release onto end organs?
Brodmann's areas: 42
Secondary auditory cortex
What percentage of the population have a complete Circle of Willis?
The superior and inferior colliculi are involved in
Superior - visual attention, inferior - auditory attention
Where does the dorsal column/medial lemniscus pathway decussate?
Brodmann's areas: 18
Secondary visual cortex
The internal carotid arteries arise from
The vertebral arteries arise from
The parasympathetic nervous system arises from what spinal cord levels?
S2 to S4 & CNs
Signs of LMN lesions
Atrophy, fasciculations, hyporeflexia, hypotonia
What are the 2 sections of the rhombencephalon?
1. Metecephalon (pons & cerebellum) 2. Myelencephalon (medulla)
Complete reversal of cerebral laterality & specialization in which the left hemisphere is dominant for visuospatial processing & the right hemisphere is dominant for language
Allocortex; 3-layered hippocampal cortex & dentate gyrus; oldest region of cortex
Which thalamic nuclei serve as relay loops for basal ganglia & cerebellar inputs to the cortex?
Ventral anterior (VA) & lateral (VL) nuclei
When above the midbrain, what directions do the following terms refer to? a) rostral b) caudal c) dorsal d) ventral
a) anterior b) posterior c) superior d) inferior
What are the 3 sections of the developing brain?
1. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) 2. Mesencephalon (midbrain) 3. Prosencephalon (forebrain)
Allocortex; olfactory cortex
Where does the anterolateral system decussate?
Brodmann's areas: 22
Transection of the spinal cord leads to
Complete loss of sensation & motor function below the lesion
Which layer of neocortex contains mostly dendrites & axons from other layers?
I - Molecular layer
What percentage of left handed individuals are L-hemisphere dominant for language?
60%; 20% are mixed
What neurotransmitter does the sympathetic nervous system release onto end organs?
What cognitive functions are associated with the insula?
Previously acquired memories, non-automatic word processing, taste
Main branches of the basilar artery
PCA, SCA, AICA, PICA
Heschl's gyrus is larger on which side of the brain?
What are the 2 sections of the prosencephalon?
1. Telencephalon (hemispheres) 2. Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)
What are the divisions of the corpus callosum?
Rostrum, genu, body, splenium
Decorticate vs. decrebrate
Decorticate = lesion is higher, flexed arms point up toward cortex Decerebrate = lesion is lower, extended arms point down
Membrane that separates the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles from the CC to the fornix
Prefrontal, post parietal, lateral temporal, portion of hippocampal cortices are all considered
Brodmann's areas: 1, 2, 3
Primary somatosensory cortex in postcentral gyrus
What artery gives rise to the lenticulostriate arteries?
Which thalamic nucleus is part of a major limbic-frontal relay pathway?
Mediodorsal nucleus (MD)