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Flashcards in Frontal lobes Deck (23):
1

According to Luria, why due frontal lobe patients have difficulty with problem solving?

The can access fragmentary operations but cannot combine them into an overall schema

1

How do lesions to the prefrontal areas affect attention?

Tilt emphasis away from internal mental processes toward stimulus-bound behavior

1

Orbitofrontal circuit

Mediation of emotional & social responses

2

Lesions to the frontal eye fields result in

Impaired exploratory eye movements even when spot eye movements are intact

3

Witzelsucht

Tendency to joke inappropriately

4

Lesions to the motor association areas anterior to M1 lead to

Complex deficits of mvmt in absence of weakness, dystonia, dysmetria, or hyperreflexia; reflect a disconnection between cognition & action

4

Stuss & Benson divided the functions of the frontal lobes into what 2 groups?

1st concerned with sequencing behaviors, forming mental sets, & integrating various behaviors 2nd concerned with more primitive processes such as drive, motivation, will

5

The frontal eye fields project to

Superior colliculus, caudate nucleus, PPRF

6

Mesulam describes 2 general types of frontal lobe syndromes. What are they?

Frontal abulia (lesions to heteromodal cortex) Frontal disinhibition (lesions to paralimbic cortex)

7

Manifestations of frontal lobe syndromes can result from

Lesions in the head of the caudate or MD of thalamus, multifocal WM disease, metabolic encephalopathy, multifocal parietal lesions

8

Personality changes is the hallmark of dysfunction in what frontal lobe circuit?

Orbitofrontal

9

Role of Broca's speech area

Translating neural word forms into articulatory sequence, sequencing words/endings into utterances that have meaning (appropriate syntactic structure)

10

Dorsolateral prefrontal syndrome

Poor problem solving, poor organizational strategies, impaired set-shifting, perseveration, impersistence, memory may be disrupted, apathy & psychomotor slowing, poor motivation/abulia, decreased emotional range

12

Frontal release signs

Reflexes (e.g., grasp, snout, glabellar) that are usually inhibited by the frontal lobes

13

Fuster's temporal processing model

Prefrontal cortex is principally involved with representing the 'temporal structure of behavior'; to encode temporal aspects of behaviors, the prefrontal cortex must be involved in the formation of 'cross-temporal contingencies'

14

Anterior cingulate circuit

Response monitoring, error detection, conflict resolution, inhibition, selective & divided attention, motivation

15

What are the two groups of processes in working memory, according to Mesulam?

1) Volitional manipulation (prefrontal dorsolateral) 2) On-line maintenance (both prefrontal & post parietal)

16

According to Norman & Shallice's framework, what are the 2 basic control mechanisms that determine how we monitor our activities?

Automatic contention scheduler (ACS) - automatic & direct priming of stored knowledge by stimuli in the environment or conceptual thought Supervisory attention system (SAS) - conscious awareness of what we know that set the priorities for action (SAS can override ACS); this system is damaged in frontal lobe dysfunction

18

Orbitofrontal syndrome

Disinhibited, poor impulse control, distractible, emotional lability/emotional dysregulation

19

Bilateral lesions to which frontal-subcortical circuit can lead to akinetic mutism?

Anterior cingulate

21

Medial frontal syndrome

Akinetic & apathetic, little initiation of mvmt or speech, lack of interest & indifference, emotional blunting, memory can be impaired, incontinence

22

Utilization behavior

Patient uses objects without a specific goal or need (e.g., sipping from an empty cup when satisfied)

23

Dorsolateral circuit

Attentional control, working memory, preparatory motor set, response monitoring