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Flashcards in Frontal lobes Deck (23)
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According to Luria, why due frontal lobe patients have difficulty with problem solving?

The can access fragmentary operations but cannot combine them into an overall schema


How do lesions to the prefrontal areas affect attention?

Tilt emphasis away from internal mental processes toward stimulus-bound behavior


Orbitofrontal circuit

Mediation of emotional & social responses


Lesions to the frontal eye fields result in

Impaired exploratory eye movements even when spot eye movements are intact



Tendency to joke inappropriately


Lesions to the motor association areas anterior to M1 lead to

Complex deficits of mvmt in absence of weakness, dystonia, dysmetria, or hyperreflexia; reflect a disconnection between cognition & action


Stuss & Benson divided the functions of the frontal lobes into what 2 groups?

1st concerned with sequencing behaviors, forming mental sets, & integrating various behaviors 2nd concerned with more primitive processes such as drive, motivation, will


The frontal eye fields project to

Superior colliculus, caudate nucleus, PPRF


Mesulam describes 2 general types of frontal lobe syndromes. What are they?

Frontal abulia (lesions to heteromodal cortex) Frontal disinhibition (lesions to paralimbic cortex)


Manifestations of frontal lobe syndromes can result from

Lesions in the head of the caudate or MD of thalamus, multifocal WM disease, metabolic encephalopathy, multifocal parietal lesions


Personality changes is the hallmark of dysfunction in what frontal lobe circuit?



Role of Broca's speech area

Translating neural word forms into articulatory sequence, sequencing words/endings into utterances that have meaning (appropriate syntactic structure)


Dorsolateral prefrontal syndrome

Poor problem solving, poor organizational strategies, impaired set-shifting, perseveration, impersistence, memory may be disrupted, apathy & psychomotor slowing, poor motivation/abulia, decreased emotional range


Frontal release signs

Reflexes (e.g., grasp, snout, glabellar) that are usually inhibited by the frontal lobes


Fuster's temporal processing model

Prefrontal cortex is principally involved with representing the 'temporal structure of behavior'; to encode temporal aspects of behaviors, the prefrontal cortex must be involved in the formation of 'cross-temporal contingencies'


Anterior cingulate circuit

Response monitoring, error detection, conflict resolution, inhibition, selective & divided attention, motivation


What are the two groups of processes in working memory, according to Mesulam?

1) Volitional manipulation (prefrontal dorsolateral) 2) On-line maintenance (both prefrontal & post parietal)


According to Norman & Shallice's framework, what are the 2 basic control mechanisms that determine how we monitor our activities?

Automatic contention scheduler (ACS) - automatic & direct priming of stored knowledge by stimuli in the environment or conceptual thought Supervisory attention system (SAS) - conscious awareness of what we know that set the priorities for action (SAS can override ACS); this system is damaged in frontal lobe dysfunction


Orbitofrontal syndrome

Disinhibited, poor impulse control, distractible, emotional lability/emotional dysregulation


Bilateral lesions to which frontal-subcortical circuit can lead to akinetic mutism?

Anterior cingulate


Medial frontal syndrome

Akinetic & apathetic, little initiation of mvmt or speech, lack of interest & indifference, emotional blunting, memory can be impaired, incontinence


Utilization behavior

Patient uses objects without a specific goal or need (e.g., sipping from an empty cup when satisfied)


Dorsolateral circuit

Attentional control, working memory, preparatory motor set, response monitoring