Airway management Chpt. 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Airway management Chpt. 9 Deck (75):
1

Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.

Aerobic Metabolism

2

Occasional, gasping breaths that occur after the heart has stopped.

Agonal gasps.

3

The upper airway tract or the passage above the larynx, which includes the nose, mouth and throat.

Airway

4

The volume of air that reaches the alveoli. It is determined by subtracting the amount of "dead space" air from the "tidal volume".

Alveolar ventilation

5

A safety system for large oxygen cylinders, designed to prevent the accidental attachment of a regulator to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas.

American Standard System

6

The metabolism that take place in the absence of oxygen; the principle product is lactic acid.

Anaerobic metabloism

7

Absence of spontaneous breathing

Apnea

8

In context of airway, the introduction of vomitus or other foreign materiel into the lungs.

Aspiration

9

Irregular, ineffective respiration that mat or may not have an identifiable pattern.

Ataxic respirations

10

A ventilation device attached to a control box that allows the varibles of ventilation to be set. it frees the EMT to perform other tasks while the patient is be ventilated.

Automatic Transport Ventilator (ATV)

11

A device with a one-way valve and a face mask attached to a ventilation bag; when attached to a reservoir and connected to oxygen, delivers more than 90% supplemental oxygen.

Bag-mask device

12

A protective item, such as a pocket mask with a valve, that limits exposure to a patient's body fluids.

Barrier device

13

A body part or a condition that appears on both sides of the midline.

Bilateral

14

Subdivision of the smaller bronchi in the lungs; made of smooth muscles and dilate or constrict in response to various stimuli

Bronchioles

15

Point at which the trachea bifurcates (divides) in to the left and right main stem bronchi (left and right lung)

Carina

16

Monitor the levels of O2, CO2, and the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid and then provide feedback to the respiratory centers to modify the rate and depth of breathing based on the body's needs at any given time.

Chemoreceptors

17

The ability of the alveoli to expand when air is drawn in during inhalation.

Compliance

18

A method of ventilation used primarily in the treatment of critically ill patients with respiratory distress; can prevent the need for endotracheal intubation.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

19

The portion of the tidal volume that does not reach the alveoli and thus does not participate in gas exchange.

Dead Space

20

A process in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Diffusion

21

Shortness of breath

Dyspnea

22

The passive part of the breathing process in which the diaphragm and the interconstal muscles relax, forcing air out of the lungs.

Exhalation

23

The exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood cells in the pulmonary capillaries; also called pulmonary respiration.

External Respiration

24

A normal reflex mechanism that causes retching; activated by touching the soft palate pr the back of the throat.

Gag Reflex

25

A condition in which air fills the stomach, often as a result of high volume and pressure during artificial ventilation.

Gastric Distention

26

The space in between the voal cords that is the narrowest portion of the adult's airway; also called the glottic opening.

Glottis

27

A term used to distinguish the degree of distress in patient with a mild airway obstruction. With good air exchange, the patient is still conscious and able to cough forcefully, although wheezing may be heard.

Good air exchange

28

A combination of two move-ments to open the airway by tilting the forhead back and lifting the chin; not used for trauma patients.

Head Tilt-chin life maneuver

29

Increased carbon dioxide level in the blood-stream.

Hypercarbia

30

A dangerous condition in which the body tissues and cells do not have enough oxygen

Hypoxia

31

A condition in which chronically low levels of oxygen in the blood stimulate the respiratory drive; seen in patients with chronic lung diseases

Hypoxic drive

32

The active, muscular part of breathing that draws air into the airway and lungs.

inhalation

33

The exchange og gases between the blood ells and the tissues.

Internal repiration

34

Bypassing of Oxygen-poor blood past nonfunctional alveoli to the left side of the heart

Intrapulmonary-Shunting

35

Technique to open the airway by placing the fingers behind the angle of the jaw and bringing the jaw forward; used for patients who may have cervical spine injury

Jaw-Thrust maneuver

36

Breathing that requires greater than normal effort; may be slower or faster than normal and usually requires the use of an accessory muscles.

Labored breathing

37

A Complex structure formed by many independent cartilaginous structures that all work together; where the upper airway ends and the lower airway begins; also called the voice box.

Larynx

38

Space within the chest that contains the heart, major blood vessels, vagus nerve, trachea, major bronchi and esophagus; located between the two lungs

Mediastinum

39

The biochemical processes that result in production of energy from nutrients within the cells

Metabolism (cellular respiration)

40

Occurs when a foreign body partially obstructs the patient's airway. The patient is able to move adequate amounts of air, but also experiences some degree of repiatory distress.

Mild airway obstuction

41

The volume of air moved through the lungs in 1 minute minus the dead space; calculated by multiplying tidal volume (minus dead space) and respiratory rate; also referred to a minute volume.

Minute ventilation

42

An oxygen-delivery device in which oxygen flows through two small, tubelike prongs that fit into the patient's nostrils; delivers 24% to 44% supplemental oxygen, depending on the flowrate.

Nasal cannula

43

Airway adjunct inserted into the nostril of an unresponsive patient, or a patient with an altered level of consciousness who is unable to maintain airway patency independently

Nasopharyngeal (Nasal) Airway

44

The nasal cavity; formed by the union of facial bones and protects the respiratory tract from contaminants.

Nasopharynx

45

A combination mask and a reservoir bag system that is the preferred way to give oxygen in the prehospital setting; delivers up to 90% inspired oxygen and prevents inhaling the exhaled gases (Carbon Dioxide)

Non-rebreathing mask

46

Airway adjunct inserted into the mouth of an unresponsive patient to keep the tongue from blocking the upper airway and faciliate suctioning of the airway

Oropharyngeal (Oral) Airway

47

Forms the posterior portion of the oral cavity, which is bordered superiorly by the hard and soft palates, laterally by the cheeks, and inferiorly by the tongue.

Oropharynx

48

The process of delivering oxygen to the blood by diffusion from the alveoli following inhalation into the lungs

Oxygenation

49

Thin membrane that lines the chest cavity

Parietal pleura

50

The term used to describe the amount of gas in air or dissolved in fluid, such as blood.

Partial pressure

51

Open, clear of obstruction

Patent

52

Nerve that innervates the diaphragm; necessary for adequate breathing to occur.

Phrenic nerve

53

A system established for portable cylinders to ensure that regulator is not connected to a cylinder containing the wrong type of gas.

Pin-Indexing System

54

A partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space.

Pneumothorax

55

A term used to describe the degree of distress in a patient with a mild airway obstruction. Wit poor air exchange, the patient often has a weak, ineffective cough, increased difficulty breathing, or possible cyanosis and may produce a high-pitched noise during inhalation (stridor)

Poor air exchange

56

Mechanical maintenance of pressure in the airway at the end of expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs.

Positive End-Expiratory pressure (PEEP)

57

An assessment tool that measures oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin in the capillary beds.

Pulse oximetry

58

A side-lying position used to maintain a clear airway in unconscious patients without injuries who are breathing adequately

Recovery position

59

The air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration

Residual volume

60

The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide

Respiration

61

Movement in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration.

Retractions

62

Occurs when a foreign body completely obstructs the patient's airway. Patients cannot breathe, talk, or cough

Severe airway obstruction

63

An opening through the skin and into an organ or other structure; a stoma in the neck connects the trachea directly to the skin

Stoma

64

A high-pitched noise heard primarily on inspiration

Stridor

65

A hollow, cylindrical device used to remove fluid from the patients' airway

Suction catheter

66

A liquid protein substance that coats the alveoli in the lungs, decreases alveolar surface tension, and keeps the alveoli expanded; a low level in the premature infant contributes to respiratory distress syndrome.

Surfactant

67

A life-threatening collection of air within the pleural space; the volume and pressure have both collapsed the involved lung and caused a shift of the mediastinal structure to the opposite side.

Tension Pheumothorax

68

The amount of air (in mL.) that is moved in or out of the lungs during one breath

Tidal volume.

69

Large, semi-rigid suction tip recommended for suctioning the pharynx; also called Yankauer tips.

Tonsil tip

70

Surgical opening into the trachea.

Tracheostomy

71

Exchange of air between the lungs and the environment, spontaneously by the patient or with assistance from another person, such as an EMT.

Ventilation

72

Thin membrane that covers the lungs

Visceral Pleura

73

The amount of air that can be forcibly expelled from the lungs after breathing in as deeply as possible.

Vital capacity

74

Thin white bands of tough muscular tissue that are lateral borders of the glottis and serve as the primary center for speech production

Vocal cords

75

The production of whistling sounds during expiration such as occurs in asthma and bronchiolitis

Wheezing