Patient Assessment Chpt. 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Patient Assessment Chpt. 8 Deck (71):
1

The secondary muscles of respiration. They include the neck muscles (Sternocleirdomastiods) the chest pectoralis major muscles, and the abdominal muscles

Accessory Muscles

2

To listen to sounds within an organ with a stethoscope.

Auscultate

3

A method of assessing the level of consciousness by determining whether the patient is awake and alert responsive to verbal stimuli or pain, or unresponsive; used principally early in the assessment process.

AVPU Scale

4

The pressure of circulating blood against the walls of the arteries.

Blood Pressure

5

A slow heart rate, less then 60 beats/min

Bradycardia

6

An indication of air movement in the lungs, usually assessed with a stethoscope.

Breath sounds

7

A test that evaluates distal circulatory system function by squeezing (blanching blood from an area such as a nail bed and watch the speed of its return after releasing the pressure.

Capillary Refill

8

A noninvasive method that can quickly and efficiently provide information on a patients ventilatory status, circulation and metabolism

Capnography

9

The use of a capnometer, a device that measures the amount of expired carbon dioxide.

Capnometry

10

Carbon dioxide is a component of air and typically makes up 0.3% of air at sea level. It is also a waste product exhaled during expiration by the respiratory system.

Carbon Dioxide

11

The reason a patient called for help; also the patients response to quetions such as "whats wrong?" or "What happen?"

Chief complaint.

12

To form a clot to plug an opening in an injured blood vessel and stop bleeding.

Coagulate

13

Capnometer or end-tidal carbon dioxide detectors are devices that use a chemical reaction to detect the amount of carbon dioxide present in expired gases by changing colors (qualitative measurement rather than quantitative)

Colorimetric devices

14

The delicate membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the eye

Conjunctiva

15

A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling

Crepitus

16

A bluish gray skin color that is caused by a reduced level of oxygen in the blood

Cyanosis

17

a Mnemonic for assessment in which each area of the body is evaluated for deformities, Contusions, Abrasions, Punctures/Penetrations, Burns, Tenderness, Lacerations and Swelling

DCAP-BTLS

18

Characterized by profuse sweating

Diaphoretic

19

The pressure that remains in the arteries during the relaxing phase of the heart's cycle (diastole) when the left ventricle is at rest

Diastolic Pressure

20

The amount of carbon dioxide present in exhaled breath

End-tidal CO2

21

A type of physical assessment that is typically performed on patients who have sustained non-significant mechanisms of injury or on responsive medical patients. This type of examination is based on the chief complaint and focuses on one body system or part.

Focused assessment

22

Damage to tissues as the result of exposure to cold; frozen or partially frozen body parts

Frostbite

23

A systematic head-to-toe examination that is performed during the secondary assessment on a patient who has sustained a significant mechanism of injury, is unconscious or is in critical condition

Full-body Scan

24

The overall initial impression that determines the priority for patient care; based on the patient's surrounding, the mechanism of injury, signs and symptoms and the chief of complaint.

General impression

25

The time from injury to definitive care, during which treatment of shock and traumatic injuries should occur because survival potential is best.

Golden Period

26

Involuntary muscle contractions (Spasms) of the abdominal wall in an effort to protect an inflamed abdomen; a sign of peritonitis

Guarding

27

A step within the patient assessment process that provides detail about the patient's chief complaint and an account of the patient's signs and symptoms

History taking

28

Blood pressure that is higher then a normal range

Hypertension

29

Blood pressure that is lower than normal range.

Hypotension

30

A condition in which the internal body temperature falls below 95°F (35°C) after exposure to a cold environment

Hypothermia

31

A system implemented to manage disasters and mass- and multiple-casualty incidents in which section chiefs, including finance, logistics, operations and planning, report to the incident commander. Also referred to as the incident management system

Incident Command System

32

Yellow skin or sclera that is caused by liver disease or dysfunction

Jaundice

33

Breathing that requires visibly increased effort; characterized by grunting, stridor and use of accessory muscles.

Labored breathing

34

The way in which traumatic injuries occur; the forces that act on the body to cause damage.

Mechanism of injury

35

Flaring out of the nostrils, indicating that there is an airway obstruction

Nasal flaring

36

The general type of illness a patient is experiencing

Nature of illness

37

An abbreviation for key terms used in evaluating a patient's pain: Onset, Provocation or Palliation, Quality, Region/radiation, Severity and timing of pain

OPQRST

38

The mental status of a patient as measured by memory of person (Name), place (current location), Time (Current year, month and approximate date), and event (what happen)

Orientation

39

TO examine by touch

Palpate

40

The motion of chest wall section that is detached in a flail chest; motion is exactly the opposite of normal motion during breathing (ie, in during inhalation, out during exhalation)

Paradoxical Motion

41

Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue

Perfusion

42

Clothing specialized equipment that provides protection to the wearer.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

43

Negative findings that warrant no care or intervention

Pertinent negatives

44

A step within the patient assessment process that identifies and initiates treatment of immediate and potential life threats.

Primary assessment

45

The pressure wave that occurs as each heartbeat causes a surge in the blood circulating through the arteries

Pulse

46

An assessment tool that measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the capillary beds

Pulse Oximetry

47

A crackling, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles

Rales

48

A step within the patient assessment process that is performed at regular intervals during the assessment process. Its purpose is to identify and treat changes in a patient's condition. A patient in unstable condition should be reassessed every 5 minutes, whereas a patient in stable condition should be reassessed every 15 mintues

Reassessment

49

The way in which a patient responds to external stimuli, including verbal stimuli (sound), tactile stimuli (touch), and painful stimuli.

Responsiveness

50

Movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs during inspiration

Retractions

51

Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airway

Rhonchi

52

A brief history of a patient's condition to determine signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, pertinent past history last oral intake and events leading to the injury or illness

SAMPLE history

53

A step within the patient assessment process that involves a quick assessment of the scene safety and the mechanism of injury or nature of illness before you enter and begin patient care.

Scene Size-Up

54

The white portion of the eye; the tough outer coat that gives protection to the delicate, light sensitive inner layer

Sclera

55

A step within the patient assessment process in which a systematic physical examination of the patient is performed. The examination maybe a systematic full-body scan or a systematic assessment that focuses on a certain area or region of the body, often determined through the chief complaint.

Secondary assessment

56

Respiration that are characterized by little movement of the chest wall (reduced tidal volume) or poor chest excursion.

Shallow reirations

57

Objective findings that can be seen, heard, felt, smelled or measured

SIgn

58

An upright position in which the patient's head and chin are thrust slightly forward to keep the airway open

Sniffing position

59

Breathing that occurs with no assistance

Spontaneous respirations

60

Protective measures that have traditionally been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for use in dealing with objects, blood, body fluids and other potential exposure risk of communicable disease

Standard precautions

61

A harsh, high-pitched, crowing inspiratory sound, such as the sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction; may sound like crowing and be audible without a stehoscope

Stridor

62

The presence of air in soft tissues, causing a characteristic crackling sensation on palpation

Subcutaneous EMphysema

63

Subjective findings that the patient feels but that can be identified only by the patient

Symptom

64

The increased pressure in an artery with each contraction of the ventricles (Systoles).

Systolic pressure

65

A rapid heart beat, more than 100 beats/min.

Tachycardia

66

The amount of air (in milliliters that is moved in or out of the lungs during one breath

Tidal Volume

67

The process of establishing treatment and transportation priorities according to severity of injury and medical need

Triage

68

An upright postion in which the patient leans forward onto two arms stretched forward and thrusts the head and chin forward

Tripod postion

69

A severe breathing problem in which a patient can speak only two to three words at a time without pausing to take a breath

Two-to-three word dysphnea

70

Narrowing of a blood vessel

Vasoconstriction

71

The key signs that are used to evaluate the patient's overall condition, including respiration's, pulse, blood pressure, level of consciousness and skin characteristics

Vital signs