Analgesics Flashcards Preview

pharm 2 > Analgesics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Analgesics Deck (40):
1

What receptors are responsible for the analgesic effects of opiates

Mu receptors

2

What drug class is morphine

opioid

3

What is a narcotic

A narcotic is an opioid (opiate) drug- dervived from unripe opium poppy (papaver somniferum)

4

What is the administration route of morphine

PO, PR, IM, IV

5

In which acute situation is morphine often used

acute MI because of the vasodilation, anxiolytic, and pain relief effects

6

What are common side effects of morphine (7)

respiratory depression, miosis, itching, constipation, paralytic ileus, N/V, dependence

7

What category is morphine

category C (may have adverse effects on fetus, but no human studies) Morphine crosses placenta and can cause dependance in fetus

8

How does Fentanyl (duragesic) differ from morphine

It is 80x more potent, which means it has a much greater respiratory depression

9

how is fentanyl administered

transdermal patch, lollipop or lozenge (sublingual), IV

10

what are side effects of fentanyl

constipation and paralytic ileus, N/V, addiction

11

What drug type cannot be used with fentanyl

concomitant CYP450 inhibitors can lead to fatal blood levels of fentanyl (like grapefruit juice)

12

What can effect the efficacy of the fentanyl patch

cutting the patch will mess up the timed release, and heating the patch affects the dose delivered as well

13

What are the uses of codeine

It is an anti-tussive in addition to being an analgesic

14

How does codeine compare to morphine

It is converted to morphine by the body, but is a much weaker analgesic. codeine is much better at cough relief.

15

what category is codeine

category C

16

what are common side effects of codeine

sedation, constipation, itching. ultra-rapid metabolizers can die from normal doses of codeine, essentially a morphine OD

17

What neuro effect does tramadol (Ultram) have

affects dopamine and serotonin as well as weak mu-receptor agonist, which makes the person tolerate pain better, as well as reducing pain

18

how does heroin differ from morphine

it is more lipid soluble, and thus crosses BBB and induces a greater euphoric effect. it is 2x as potent, and way more addictive than morphine

19

What is methadone used for

opioid used in the controlled withdrawal of heroin and morphine in addicted patients

20

What is Naloxone (narcan) used for

opioid OD, reverses coma and respiratory depression

21

What is the MOA of Naloxone (narcan)

Opioid ANTAGONIST bind with high affinity to opioid receptors but do not activate the receptor mediated response.

22

What is dextromethorphan

The dextro-isomer of codeine

23

How does dextromethrophan differ from codeine

It has little to no analgesic, sedative, or GI effects (non constipating)

24

what drug class is Aspirin/ Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)

NSAID

25

Is aspirin a reversible or irreversible COX inhibitor

it is irreversible, thus no aspirin 14 days before surgery

26

What is a risk of kids using aspirin

Reye's syndrome, salicylism (dizziness, tinnitus, hyperventilation, craziness)

27

Is ibuprofen (motrin, advil) reversible or irreversible COX inhibitor

reversible, so no platelet aggregation issues

28

What drug class is celecoxib (celebrex)

NSAID, selective COX-2 inhibitor

29

Why was vioxx (rofecoxib) pulled from the market

increased cardiovascular events after 7 months of use

30

What class is acetaminophen (tylenol)

NSAID, inhibits COX-3

31

What NEVER mixes with tylenol

alcohol

32

What happens in an acetaminophen overdose

The byproduct NAPQI builds up in the liver and binds to vital proteins in the lipid bilayer in hepatocytes, causing cell death and necrosis

33

What category is acetaminophen

category B

34

How is acetaminophen antidoted

N-acetylcysteine administration ASAP

35

What is the maximum dose of tylenol in the absence of any alcohol or liver disease (considered safe adult dose)?

4 grams/ 24 hours

36

What is considered an overdose of tylenol?

>7 grams/24 hours

37

indication for celebrex?

inflammation, pain, treatment of adenomatous polyps, can also be used in people with peptic ulcers

38

Which analgesic agent would not cause constipation?

dextromethorphan

39

What DEA category is Heroin?

DEA category CI

40

What are endogenously made opiates called?

Opiopeptins : endorphins, enkephalins