Immunosuppressant Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunosuppressant Drugs Deck (35):
1

What drug class is methotrexate

Anti-metabolite and anti-folate immunosuppressant and chemotherapeutic

2

What are the indications of methotrexate

Cancer, autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and Crohn's disease as well as an abortifacient

3

What is the MOA of methotrexate

Anti-metabolite and anti-folate drug

4

What are the admin routes for methotrexate

PO, IM, IV, SQ and IT (intra-thecal)

5

What must be monitored if you are taking methotrexate

CBC, LFT, creatinine

6

What are side effects of methotrexate

nausea, abdominal pain, fatigue, fever, dizziness, ulcerative stomatitis, low white blood cell count and thus predisposition to infection

7

What are severe side effects of methotrexate

developing another malignancy, pulmonary fibrosis, acute, pneumonitis

8

What category is methotraxate

category X, plus never should be used by pregnant women or those trying to conceive

9

What supplement decreases the efficacy of methotrexate

folic acid or folate

10

What drug class is azathioprine (Imuran)

purine anti-metabolite immuno-suppressant

11

What are the indications of azathioprine (imuran)

Prevention of transplant rejection, inflammatory bowel disease, SLE and rheumatoid arthritis

12

What is the MOA of azathioprine (imuran)

Metabolic breakdown products of Azathioprine act to inhibit purine synthesis which will block protein synthesis, particularly in cells that experience rapid turnover

13

What are side effects of azathioprine (imuran)

Rapidly growing cells are most readily affected, leading to hair loss, bone marrow suppression (aplastic anemia), GI toxicity, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Decreased ability to fight infection

14

What drug class is Cyclosporine (Sandimmune)

immunosuppressant derived from a soil fungus

15

What are the indications for Cyclosporine

Prevent rejection of kidney, liver and heart transplants as well as for treatment of RA and other autoimmune diseases such as severe psoriasis

16

What is the MOA of Cyclosporine

T-cell inhibition. Blocks the signal to lymphocytes to produce IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, and interferon gamma

17

What will increase blood levels of cyclosporine

grapefruit, because cyclosporin is processed by CYP 450

18

What drug class is Tacrolimus/ Prograf

An immunosuppressant drug related to the macrolide class of antibiotics extracted from soil microorganism

19

What are the indication of Tacrolimus

Protection against rejection of organ transplantation. Topical treatment for severe eczema

20

How does tacrolimus compare to cyclosporine

tacrolimus is like 100x more potent

21

What strange location is cyclosporine used in low dose

in the eyes when there is reduced tear production (from inflammation) Called Restasis

22

What drug class is etanercept (enbrel)

DMARD, recombinant-DNA drug

23

How is etanercept administered

SQ injection 1-2x weekly

24

Wat are side effects of etanercept

tumors, increased susceptibility to infections,

25

What drug class is infliximab (remicade)

DMARD, recombinant-DNA drug

26

What are the indications for infliximab

RA, Crohn’s disease, U.C (etanercept is not approved for IBD)

27

What is the administration route for infliximab

IV, since gut would destroy the drug

28

What is the MOA of infliximab

neutralizes the biological activity of TNFα by binding with high affinity to the soluble (free floating in the blood) TNFα and the trans-membrane (located on the outer membranes of T cells and similar immune cells) forms of TNFα, thus preventing the effective binding of TNFα with its receptors.

29

Which drug is used in DMARDs is also used as an anti-malarial

Hydroxychloroquine (plaquenil)

30

What is the MOA for hydroxychloroquine's DMARD activity

blocks activation fo TLRs on plasmacytoid dendritic cells

31

What are indications for hydroxychloroquine

AI dz, malaria, post lyme

32

What are signs of hydroxychloroquine overdose

HA, drowsiness, convulsions, SOB, vision problems

33

Which drug mandates yearly dilated eye exams

hydroxychloroquine (plaquenil)

34

From whom is hydroxychloroquine contraindicated

Those with G6PD enzyme deficiency

35

What are gold salts used for

reducing inflammation in AI disease when patient in unresponsive to other drug therapies