Anti-seizure Flashcards Preview

pharm 2 > Anti-seizure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anti-seizure Deck (30):
1

what are the main MOA of anti-convulsant drugs (4)

-Sodium channel blockade (high dose)
-Calcium channel (T-type) blockade
-Potentiate GABA - inhibitory neurotransmission -
-Decrease Glutamate - excitatory neurotransmission

2

What is Valproic acid/ Depakote used for

Generalized/ tonic clonic seizures

3

What drugs are used for status epilepticus (4)

Diazepam/ Valium
Lorazepam /Ativan
Phenytoin/ Dilantin
Ethosuximide/ zarontin

4

What drug class is Primidone/ Mysoline

barbiturate anticonvulsant

5

What is a key characteristic of Primidone/ Mysoline

it has the longest half-life of all, and breaks down into phenobarbitol

6

what category is Primidone/ Mysoline

Category D, because kiddos have lower IQs, but it is hard to say whether it's from the drug or from the seizures

7

What drug class is diazepam (valium)

benzodiazepine anticonvulsant

8

What is the MOA of diazepam (valium)

Increased sensitivity of GABA receptor sites to GABA with subsequent increased chloride influx which serves to inhibit CNS synaptic transmission

9

How does Clonazepam (klonopin) compare to diazepam (valium)

very similar. long acting. abuse potential

10

What drug class is phenytoin (dilantin)

anticonvulsant

11

What is the MOA of phenytoin (dilantin)

Reduces sodium and calcium and currents across neuronal membranes

12

What are the indications for phenytoin (dilantin)

Prophylaxis for all types of seizures except absence seizures

13

What are side effects of phenytoin (dilantin)

Nystagmus (horizontal), gingival hyperplasia, possible hepatotoxicity, bone marrow suppression

14

What can be supplemented to help prevent gingival hyperplasia

folate and coQ10

15

What drug class is carbamazepine (tegretol)

anticonvulsant

16

What are the indications for carbamazepine (tegretol)

Prophylaxis against all types of seizures except absence seizures. Also used to treat chronic pain such as trigeminal neuralgia and post-herpetic neuralgia. Tegretol has also been used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bi-polar disorder.

17

What are significant side effects of carbamazepine (tegretol)

Vertigo, nausea, vomiting. Possible bone marrow suppression and aplastic anemia (follow blood counts)

18

How is tegretol processed by the body

CYP450

19

What s the MOA of carbamazepine (tegretol)

Similar to phenytoin in the reduction of sodium and calcium currents across neuronal membranes

20

What are the indications of Valproic acid (depakote)

All seizure types, particularly in absence seizures and combined seizure conditions. Also used to treat bipolar disorder and chronic pain syndromes.

21

What is a characteristic of valproic acid (depakote)

Additive anti-seizure effects when combined with other anticonvulsants

22

What are side effects of valproic acid

nausea, insomnia, anxiety. Potential for severe hepatotoxicity. Known to be an antagonist of folic acid. Causes birth defects big time

23

What drug class is Ethosuximide/ Zarontin

anti-convulsant

24

What are side effects of Ethosuximide/ Zarontin

gingival hyperplasia, Headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, ataxia, blurred vision, confusion, skin rashes, insomnia, notable for possible hepatotoxicity and lupus-like syndrome

25

What are the indications for Gabapentin (neurontin)

: Adjunctive treatment of partial seizures. Also used in chronic pain syndromes such as post-herpetic neuralgia. Migraine headaches

26

What drug class is gabapentin (neurontin)

anticonvulsant, atypical analgesic

27

What is the MOA of gabapentin

Appears to potentiate GABA and also affects N-type calcium channels

28

What are side effects of gabapentin

Somnolence, dizziness, ataxia, headache and other CNS side effects. just not feeling right (dysphoria)

29

What are the indications for lamotrigine (lamactil)

Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, complex partial seizures and seizures resistant to other drug treatments. Bipolar

30

What are the indications for Levetiracetam (Keppra)

Tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures and seizures resistant to other drug treatments. ) May have benefits for other psychiatric and neurologic conditions such as Tourette’s syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, autism and bipolar disorder. Along with other anticonvulsants such as Gabapentin, Keppra is also used to treat neuropathic pain.