Flashcards in Ophthalmic drugs Deck (42):
How do Mydriatic agents affect the eye
They cause pupillary dilation
How do Miotic agents affect the eye
They cause pupillary constriction
What is the medical term for "dry eyes"
How is Fluorescein dye stored
As paper strips to be wet at time of use, due to psuedomonas infection of fluorescein solution
What is the MOA of Cyclosporin (restasis)
T-cell inhibition diminishes inflammation which allows for an increase in tear production
What drug class is cyclosporin (Restasis)
What is the medical term for "pink eye"
Conjunctivitis, inflammation of the outer most layer of the eye and inner surface of the eyelids.
What drug class is Tetrahydrozoline (Visine)
Ocular astringent, redness reliever
What is the MOA of tetrahydrolozine (visine)
What is the function of the Zinc sulfate in Visine
Acts as an astringent
What drug class is Azelastine (Optivar)
What is the MOA of azelastine (Optivar)
Blocks H1 receptor sites
What drug class is Ketorolac (Acular)
What drug class is Bacitracin-Polymyxin B (Polysporin Ophthalmic)
What are the indications for Polysporin ophthalmic
Bacterial conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers, styes, and infected tear ducts. Prophylactic use after corneal abrasion.
What drug class is Vidarabine (Ara-A)
Antiviral, specific for HSV
What are the application routes for Vidarabine (Ara-A)
Ointment, solution for ophthalmic use. Also available as I.V. for systemic use
How is glaucoma normally treated
Glaucoma is usually treated by the application of eye drops from one or more of the following drug classes:
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
What drug class is Timolol (Timoptic)
Ocular Beta-adrenergic antagonist
What is the MOA of timolol (Timoptic)
Blocks the ocular effects of epinephrine which serves to reduce the production of the aqueous humor
What drug class is Latanoprost (Xalatan)
selective prostaglandin receptor agonist
What is the MOA of latanoprost (Xalatan)
increases uveoscleral outflow thus improving the outflow of aqueous humor and reducing intraocular pressure
What is a noteworthy side effect of latanoprost (Xalatan)
makes the eyelashes grow longer and thicker, possible darkening of the iris (to brown: heterochromia)
What is a cycloplegic do?
causes paralysis of accomodation
what is fluorescein dye used for?
for diagnosis of corneal abrasions, ulcers, and herpetic corneal infections. It sticks to areas of de-epithelialization and illuminated with cobalt blue light.
what is the most common reason for keratoconjunctivitis sicca?
Contact lens wear. Also environments that are dry and windy. common complaint of autoimmune d/o.
what are some causes of conjunctivitis?
Allergic, viral, bacterial, thermal or UV burns, chemicals, toxins, or overuse of contacts
What are the sxs of acute allergic conjunctivitis?
typically itchy and the patient often complains of some lid swelling
What are the sxs of viral conjunctivitis?
watery discharge and variable itch. The infection usually begins with one eye but often involves both eyes
what are the sxs of bacterial conjunctivitis?
due to the common pyogenic (pus-producing) bacteria (i.e. Staphylococcus) often causes marked irritation and a stringy, grey or yellowish discharge.
what are the side effects of tetrahydrozoline/visine?
REBOUND vasodilation (redness)
what is Azelastine/optivar indicated for?
What is the MOA of Ketorolac/Acular?
what is Ketorolac/Acular indicated for?
ocular discomfort from swelling
Does the use of ocular nsaids increase the risk for development of catracts and drug induced glaucoma associated with ocular steroids?
What is the MOA of polysporin Opthalmic?
inhibitis bacterial protein synthesis
what is the MOA of Vidarabine/Ara-A?
inhibits viral DNA synthesis
Is vidarabine effective for herpes zoster/shingles?
not as effective as HSV b/c the shingles lesions are deeper in the cornea and not easily reached by a topical med.
what is timolol indicated for?
Side effects of Timolol?
worsening of asthma or emphysema, low blood pressure, fatigue, and impotence. May have rebound effects (beta blocker)
how do miotic agents (pilocarpine) help with glaucoma tx?
cause contraction of the ciliary ms which tighten trabecular meshwork and allow increased outflow of aqueous humor