Ophthalmic drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ophthalmic drugs Deck (42):
1

How do Mydriatic agents affect the eye

They cause pupillary dilation

2

How do Miotic agents affect the eye

They cause pupillary constriction

3

What is the medical term for "dry eyes"

keratoconjunctivitis sicca

4

How is Fluorescein dye stored

As paper strips to be wet at time of use, due to psuedomonas infection of fluorescein solution

5

What is the MOA of Cyclosporin (restasis)

T-cell inhibition diminishes inflammation which allows for an increase in tear production

6

What drug class is cyclosporin (Restasis)

imunosupressant

7

What is the medical term for "pink eye"

Conjunctivitis, inflammation of the outer most layer of the eye and inner surface of the eyelids.

8

What drug class is Tetrahydrozoline (Visine)

Ocular astringent, redness reliever

9

What is the MOA of tetrahydrolozine (visine)

Vasoconstriction

10

What is the function of the Zinc sulfate in Visine

Acts as an astringent

11

What drug class is Azelastine (Optivar)

ocular antihistamine

12

What is the MOA of azelastine (Optivar)

Blocks H1 receptor sites

13

What drug class is Ketorolac (Acular)

ocular NSAID

14

What drug class is Bacitracin-Polymyxin B (Polysporin Ophthalmic)

ocular antibiotic

15

What are the indications for Polysporin ophthalmic

Bacterial conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers, styes, and infected tear ducts. Prophylactic use after corneal abrasion.

16

What drug class is Vidarabine (Ara-A)

Antiviral, specific for HSV

17

What are the application routes for Vidarabine (Ara-A)

Ointment, solution for ophthalmic use. Also available as I.V. for systemic use

18

How is glaucoma normally treated

Glaucoma is usually treated by the application of eye drops from one or more of the following drug classes:
Beta-blockers
Prostaglandin analogs
Miotic agents
Alpha agonists
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

19

What drug class is Timolol (Timoptic)

Ocular Beta-adrenergic antagonist

20

What is the MOA of timolol (Timoptic)

Blocks the ocular effects of epinephrine which serves to reduce the production of the aqueous humor

21

What drug class is Latanoprost (Xalatan)

selective prostaglandin receptor agonist

22

What is the MOA of latanoprost (Xalatan)

increases uveoscleral outflow thus improving the outflow of aqueous humor and reducing intraocular pressure

23

What is a noteworthy side effect of latanoprost (Xalatan)

makes the eyelashes grow longer and thicker, possible darkening of the iris (to brown: heterochromia)

24

What is a cycloplegic do?

causes paralysis of accomodation

25

what is fluorescein dye used for?

for diagnosis of corneal abrasions, ulcers, and herpetic corneal infections. It sticks to areas of de-epithelialization and illuminated with cobalt blue light.

26

what is the most common reason for keratoconjunctivitis sicca?

Contact lens wear. Also environments that are dry and windy. common complaint of autoimmune d/o.

27

what are some causes of conjunctivitis?

Allergic, viral, bacterial, thermal or UV burns, chemicals, toxins, or overuse of contacts

28

What are the sxs of acute allergic conjunctivitis?

typically itchy and the patient often complains of some lid swelling

29

What are the sxs of viral conjunctivitis?

watery discharge and variable itch. The infection usually begins with one eye but often involves both eyes

30

what are the sxs of bacterial conjunctivitis?

due to the common pyogenic (pus-producing) bacteria (i.e. Staphylococcus) often causes marked irritation and a stringy, grey or yellowish discharge.

31

what are the side effects of tetrahydrozoline/visine?

REBOUND vasodilation (redness)

32

what is Azelastine/optivar indicated for?

Allergic conjunctivitis

33

What is the MOA of Ketorolac/Acular?

Cyclooxygenase inhibitor

34

what is Ketorolac/Acular indicated for?

ocular discomfort from swelling

35

Does the use of ocular nsaids increase the risk for development of catracts and drug induced glaucoma associated with ocular steroids?

NO.

36

What is the MOA of polysporin Opthalmic?

inhibitis bacterial protein synthesis

37

what is the MOA of Vidarabine/Ara-A?

inhibits viral DNA synthesis

38

Is vidarabine effective for herpes zoster/shingles?

not as effective as HSV b/c the shingles lesions are deeper in the cornea and not easily reached by a topical med.

39

what is timolol indicated for?

glaucoma

40

Side effects of Timolol?

worsening of asthma or emphysema, low blood pressure, fatigue, and impotence. May have rebound effects (beta blocker)

41

how do miotic agents (pilocarpine) help with glaucoma tx?

cause contraction of the ciliary ms which tighten trabecular meshwork and allow increased outflow of aqueous humor

42

what class drug is pilocarpine?

cholinergic agonists (parasympathomimetics)-- miotic agent