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Flashcards in Anatomy And Physiology Deck (71):
1

Anatomy def

Form

Can be in a large scale, microscopic (histology), or comparative (retractable vs nonretractable claw)

2

Physiology def

Body/organ function

3

Animal vitals

Run hotter than humans

4

Most animal temps are around ___________
Which two are abnormal

102

Horse lower
Poultry higher

5

Where is the dorsal

Surface back

6

What does median plane do

Cut down middle of animal

7

Where is the cranial end

Head

8

What's another name for causal end

Coccygeal

9

What does the transverse plane do

Perpendicular to median plane

10

What is another name for median plane

Mid sagital plane

11

Frontal plane

?

12

What is difference between abduction and adduction

Abduction- movement away from median plane

Add- movement toward median plane

13

Difference between anterior and posterior

Anterior/ toward front of body

Posterior- toward back surface of body

14

Difference between caudal and cranial

Caudal- toward tail
Cranial- toward head

15

What does cutaneous

Relating to the skin

16

What is the ventral

Belly

17

Muscle just below skin is ______________ abdominal muscle also known as fly shaker

Cutaneous

18

What's the difference between extension and flexion

Extension- straightening of limbs

Flexion- bending of limbs at joints

19

Difference between lateral and medial

Lateral- away from median plane

Medial- toward median plane

20

What is sagital

Any plane parallel to median plane

21

What is a process

A projection or outgrowth

22

What's the difference of proximal and distal

Proximal- usually applied to limbs
Toward the attached portion of major body mass

Distal- farthest from major body mass

23

Def of superficial (superficialis)

Toward surface

24

Transverse def

A plane across body perpendicular to median plane

25

Infra or sub

Below or beneath

26

Supra

Above or superior

27

Inter

Between

28

Intra

Within

29

Skin

Exterior covering of body

Continuous

30

Layers of skin + def

Epidermis- outer layers of epithelial cells

Dermis- connective tissue, blood vessels, lymph, nerves, glands, hair follicular

31

Functions of skin

Protection
Temp regulation
Responds to environment (sensory nerves)

Secretion and excretion

32

Skeletal system functions

Protection

Provide rigidity and form (support)

Act of levers

Store minerals

Sure for red blood cell formation

33

5 vertebraes

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal

34

What are the three things that make up pelvis

Shaft of Ilium (hook)

Ischium (pin)

Pubic symphysis (middle)

35

Four types of joints

Ball and socket: shoulder hip

Hinged: elbow

Pivot: neck (atlas, axis)

Glide: ( vertebrae- bend several directions)

36

Another name for ribs

Casts

37

This carries signals from sensory organs to the brain (afferent signals) and signals brain muscles and tissues (efferent signals)

Nervous system

38

Another name for signals from sensory organs to the brain

Afferent signals

39

Signals from brain to muscles and tissues

Efferent signals

40

Name two systems in nervous system

Central and peripheral

41

The central nervous system consists of what

Brain and spinal cords

42

Peripheral nervous system consists of

Cranial and spinal nerves

43

Whole blood is made up of two things they are

Formed elements (45%)
Plasma (55%)

44

Formed elements consist of

Platelets
Red blood cells
White blood cells

45

Plasma consists of

Other (1.5%)
Water (91.5%
Proteins 7%

46

Proteins in plasma consist of

Binding proteins
Antibodies

47

Hemoglobin in blood is what

Oxygen binding protein in blood

48

Red blood cells are also called and are produced in

Erythrocytes
Bone marrow

49

Red blood cells carry what

Oxygen and co 2

50

White blood cells are also called

Leukocyte

51

White blood cells are what

Immune cells

52

Platelets another name for

Thrombocytes

53

Platelets do what

Blood clotting

54

Name the control, banding pattern, shape, and nuclei/cell of skeletal muscle

Control: voluntary
Bp: striated
Shape: threadlike
N/c- multinucleated

55

What is the control, banding pattern, shape, and nuclei:celll of cardiac muscle

Control- involuntary
Bp: striated
Shape: branches
N/c: mononucleated

56

What is the control, banding pattern, shape, and nuclei/cell of smooth muscle

Control: involuntary
Bp: non striated
Shape: various
Nc: mononucleated

57

What does striated mean

Under microscope and have banding patterns due to density of proteins

58

What are the 5 muscle functions

Locomotion, respiration, circulation, digestion, and reproduction

59

What muscle type performs:
Locomotion
Respiration
Circulation
Digestion
Reproduction

L- skeletal muscle
R- skeletal muscle (not intirrally involuntary because of diaphragm)
C- cardiac and smooth
D- smooth primarily
Rep- smooth primarily

60

Which muscle type has the largest cells in animals body that is visible by eye

Skeletal muscle

61

What does multinucleated allow

Allow to get big

62

Smooth muscle is described as

Adaptable

63

How many chambers are in the heart of humans

Name them

4

Right and left atrium
Right and left ventricles

64

What do artiers do

What do veins do

Artiers thick vessels that carry oxygen rich blood

Veins- return vessels

65

What are the two exceptions to veins and artieries

Pulmonary v and a

66

What are capillaries

Thin walled vessels, all tissues

67

What is lymph system

Accessory to circulatory system

Nodes or glands filter foreign substances, produce lymphocytes

68

Systematic circulation def

Moves oxygenated blood to body and returns venous (deoxygenated) blood to heart

69

Pulmonary circulation

Veins carry oxygenated blood

70

What def of cardiac muscle

Branched fibers connected by dense intercalated disks

Many glycogen granules

Large and numerous mitochondria

71

What are the three muscle fiber types

Red oxidative type 1
Intermediate oxid/glycolytic type 11A
White glycolytic type 11b