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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (82):

Regarding blood cells
a. red blood cells contain hemoglobin that binds to oxygen
b. platelets are also called thrombocytes and are involved in blood clotting
c. white blood cells are also called leukocytes and they help prevent disease
d. erythrocytes carry CO 2 bound to myoglobin

not d because bound to hemoglobin


Amino Acids
a. are used to build proteins, such as myosin, actin, insulin, and immunoglobulins
b. can limit the amount of protein synthesis if they are not present in sufficient amounts
c. must all be consumed in the diet, because all are essential
d. can be made by microbes provided with nitrogen in the rumen of cattle

not c because not all are essential


Compared with white muscle fibers, red skeletal muscle fibers
a. are tonic and most resistant to fatigue
b. are utilized more during light exercise
c. are smaller and have more surface area: volume
d. have more myoglobin and more oxidative metabolism



Crude Fiber
a. consists of cellulose and hemicellulose
b. has a laxative effect
c. helps maintain muscular tone of digestive tract
d. is more digestible than starch

not d because it less digestible


Regarding muscle
a. cardiac and smooth muscles are both striated at all times
b. skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated, whereas cardiac and smooth muscle cells are mononucleated
c. smooth muscle cells are associated with the intestine, stomach, and blood vessels
d. cardiac muscle has abundant mitochondria and glycogen for energy production

not a because......?


Double muscling
a. can occur in cattle and dogs
b. results in less body fat
c. is associated with a higher % of white muscle fibers
d. can cause dystocia, which is birthing dificulty



a. increases in the blood after a meal, and increases glucose uptake into cells
b. decreases glucose uptake into cells, which increases blood glucose
c. is a protein hormone produced by the pancrease
d. is an endocrine hormone, because it is produced in one location and acts in many different locations

not b becauseeee......?


Regarding carbohydrates
a. amylose is a digestible starch
b. maltose is the sweetest disaccharide
c. sucrose consists of glucose and fructose
d. galactose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar

not b because sucrose is


Growth hormone
a. is produced by the anterior pituitary, which is a portion of the brain
b. is classified as a steroid hormone
c. is also called somatotropin, and the release of somatotropin is inhibited by somatostatin
d. causes goiter formation, which is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid

not b because it is protein hormone
not d because just fancy words?


a. typically decreases during stress
b. is the "fight or flight" hormone
c. is also called adrenaline and is produced in the adrenal gland
d. is an amine hormone, made from the amino acid tyrosine

not a because it increases during stress


a. are composed of oleic and linoleic acids
b. contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
c. include amylose, cellulose, and glycogen
d. include glucose arabinose, and hemicellulose

a is in regards to fatty acids
d- does not include glucose as a polysacardie


a. bind specific hormones with high affinity
b. for protein hormones are located in/on the cell membrane
c. may be located within cells, and some are found in the cell nucleus
d. are proteins capable of signal transduction or interaction with cellular components such as DNA



a. is combined with carbon dioxide and energy from the sun to produce glucose and oxygen
b. is a solvent that is also a transporting medium
c. is produced when peptide bonds are formed during protein synthesis
d, is produced when lactose is hydrolyzed to form glucose and mannose

not d because it consists of glucose and galactose


which of the following are approved by the FDA as growth regulators in meat animals
a. trebolone acetate
b. estradiol
c. growth hormone
d. rectopamine hydrochloride



Fat deposition
a. is less restricted than muscle growth because new fat cells can form throughout life
b. has a low priority for nutrients and is restricted when animals consume a low energy ration
c. results from an increase in fat cell number followed by fat accumulation in cells
d. begins prenatally with the differentiation of mesodermal stem cells



During animal development and growth
a. embryonic growth accounts for 15-20% of the prenatal period
b. myotubes (immature muscle fibers) are formed when myoblasts differentiate and fuse together
c. ectododerm gives rise to internal organs
d. long bones grow in length where epipheseal

not c ectoderm it is endoderm


endurance training an animal that has been a short distance racer would be expected to
a. increase mitochondria in skeletal muscle cells
b. do nothing since the animal already trained was already trained
c. increase muscle fiber size and muscel mass
d. increase muscle's ability to use lipid for energy



Because locomotion is critical for survival, skeletal muscle has a higher priority for nutrients than the brain, bone, and adipose tissue
t or f



Methionine, lysine and arginine are essential amino acids, which re not produced in sufficient quantities by the body and must be derived from the diet
t or f



The amount of estrogen in 3 ounces of beef from a steer with an estrogenic implant is approximately double what a non-pregnant woman's body will produce daily



During intense and strenuous exercise, white (type IIB) muscle fibers are recruited, and the carbohydrate, ___________, becomes the major fuel used for energy.



Nerve cells, which are also ________, receive signals from adjacent cells via their _________ and convey the signal as electrical action potentials along their axons.

Neurons, dendrites


At the terminal bulb of the nerve cell, release of acetylcholine, which is a ______________ conveys the nerve signal to an adjacent muscle cell.



Acetylocholine binds to receptors that are actually channels that open to allow ________ to flow into skeletal muscle cells and initiate an action potential, or wave of membrane depolarization. This wave of depolarization travels down the muscle membrane, called the _______________ and extensions of this membrane, called transverse tubules, extend to the interior of the muscle fiber.

Sodium, sarcolemma


A five carbon simple sugar that is a component of nucleic acids (DNA RNA) is ____________.



When a stem cell acquires characteristics that are unique to a bone cell (osteoblast), one could say the cell has undergone the process of _____________. Osteoblasts and myoblasts are derived from _________ (mesodermal, mesodermal, or ectodermal) stem cells, whereas brain, nerves, skin and hair are all derived from _____________ stem cells.

differentiation, mesodermal, ectodermal


A protein referred to as the _________________ on the transverse tubule senses the membrane depolarization. This protein interacts with the _____________ release channel located on the terminal cisternae. Upon its release, this mineral binds to troponin C and causes a complex of proteins to move and thereby expose the regions on the ________ filament where the myosin heads bind and initiate the crossbridge cycle for muscle contraction.

Voltage sensory, calcium, actin


Double muscling results from natural mutations in the _____________ gene, which codes for a protein that is an inhibitor of muscle growth.



An increase in muscle cells size results from the accumulation of muscle proteins, which happens whenever protein synthesis is greater than protein _______________.



Oxygenated blood from the ____________ veins comes from the lungs enters the heart at the left ____________. This oxygenated blood is pumped through the aorta to the body by the left _____________, which is a thick , muscular region of the heart.

Pulmonary, atrium, ventricle


______________ is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue, and acts on the brain to inhibit neuropeptide y (NPY) and thereby decrease appetite of humans and animals, so consumption of calories is limitied.



Glucagon is a protein hormone that is released when blood glucose is low. PRotein hormones are composed of ____________, and small proteins are called peptides.

amino acids


During growth, ___________ and central nervous system has a high priority for nutrients. A fetus that has nutrients restriction may be considered ____________. If nutrients are restricted during postnatal growth, and then the animal is provided adequate nutrition, the animal will typically exhibit a period of rapid growth, called ___________ growth.

brain, runt, compensatory


The most abundant protein found in myofibrils is __________, which is found in thick filaments. Within myofibrils, the structure considered the smallest functional contractile unit, which extends from z-disk to z-disk, is the ______________. These get shorter when muscle contracts.



The major classes of nutrients that can provide energy to an animal are fat, protein, and ______________.



Some hormones are synthesized in ductless glands and secreted into the blood, where they travel to another tissue at a distant site to evoke a response. This type of action is called ____________ action.



Nuclei from ____________ (cell type) incorporate into pre-existing muscle fibers during postnatal growth, and are responsible for DNA accumulations. This provides the genetic material that allows the muscle fiber to synthesize and accumulate more protein.

satellite cells


An example of a steroid hormone is ____________. Steroid hormones are synthesized using _________ as a precursor, or parent compound. Steroid hormones are usually transported through the blood bound to protiens, and these hormones typically act via receptors that are ________________ (location)

cortisol, cholesterol, intracellular


_____________ is the primary structural carbohydrate (fiber) in forages, and it is poorly digested because it is comprised solely o f__________ -1,4 linked glucose. In contrast, the primary polysaccharide in animals is ___________, which is stored in liver and muscle.

Cellulose, Beta, glycogen


Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced in the specific portion of the brain called the ______________, and GHRH stimulates Growth Hormone release. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor from the ____________ (organ), and Insulin like growth factor is actually responsible for many of the effects of growth hormone on milk production. IGF-I can also be secreted from a skeletal muscle fiber and stimulate protein synthesis after binding to a receptor on that same skeletal muscle fiber. this is called __________ action

hypothalamus, liver, autocrine


The nutritive value, or ability of a given source of protein to supply amino acids in the relative amounts needed for body function, is referred to as the ___________ value of the protein. When amino acids are used to manufacture (synthesis) proteins, __________ bonds are formed between the amino acids.

biological, peptide


what is a fat
what is oil

solid at room temp (more saturated FA)
liquid at room temp (more unsaturated FA)


Vitamins are described as essential ________ compounds required in _________ amounts

organic, small


what does fat soluble vitamins mean

a. dissolve in lipids
b. stored in liver and adipose tissue
c. many have hormonal type actions
d. plant based some are pro-vitamin


what does water soluble vitamins mean

a. absorbed in the small intestine
b. many act as enzymatic co-factors/co-enzymes after modification
c. not stored- kidney filters excess into urine and is excreted
d. important to get these vitamins daily
e. toxicities are rare


What are the fat soluble vitamins

ADEK (there are two d: D2, D3)


what can guinea pigs not store

vitamin c


which water soluble vitamin contains cobalt



which fat soluble vitamin is important for vision if has a deficiency can cause blindness



which of the fat soluble vitamins of d are for plants and which are animals

and which contains calcium

D2 = plants
D3= animals and contains calcium


which fat soluble vitamin is known for antioxidant
which is known for blood clotting

E is antioxidant
K for blood clotting


Vitamin A is also called ___________. What are the three functions of vitamin A?

Vision, bone development, reproduction


what causes blindness

Vitamin a deficiency
inadequate amounts of retinol
it is the leading cause of blindness in developing countries


what reproduction disorders does vitamin A deficiencies cause?

increased abortions
retained placentas
blind or dead calves


What is known as the sunshine vitamin

Vitamin D


what are the functions of Vitamin D?

and it is considered _________________ essential because if you are in the sun you will have enough but if you are not you need to meet requirements another way.

aid in calcium absorption
calcium storage (bones)
serum calcium regulation


The two vitamin D forms are called what

D2= ergocalciferol
D3= cholecalciferol


rickets and osteoporosis are caused by what deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency


what reduces vitamin d formation

dark skin
clouds, smoke, dust


what vitamin is regarded as an antioxidant, maintains intergrety of cell membrane, maintance of heart function, often associated with selenium

vitamin E


This deficiency is rare; it may lead to muscular dystrophy or heart, liver, or muscle necrosis in a variety of species

Vitamin E


what deficiency is common and causes white muscle disease primarily in cattle and lambs?
If they are born with this deficiency, they have less than 10% of survival rate

Selenium deficiency


What vitamin coagulates the blood and contributes to bone and tooth development?

Vitamin K


what synthesizes vitamin k in rumens
in monogastrics?

Rumens= rumen microbes
monogastrics= microbes in large intestine


what rare deficiency is mainly found in infants and signs include excessive bleeding

vitamin k deficiency


Where are water soluble vitamins absorbed?
what is absorption regulated by?
how are they stored?

small intestine=absorbed
regulated by other vitamins
they are not stored


what vitamins can rumen microbes have the ability of synthesize

B complex


what does B12 originate from
and where can it be found

Microbial synthesis
in animal products no plants


what causes pernicious anemia

B12 cyanocobalamin


what vitamin is an antioxidant, important for formation of collagen to hold cells together, improves iron absorption and resistance to infection, and benefits of high doses to immune system are debatable

Vitamin C


what deficiency causes scurvy

Vit C


minerals are considered _________ elements that are not changed by digestion. They are absorbed in the small intestine and classified into two groups ________ and _________

macro, micro


name some macro minerals

sodium, potassium, sulfur, calcium


Name some micro minerals

iron, zinc, copper, selenium


in macro minerals, you need them in ___________ (less or greater) quantities than micro
and the _________ range includes;
if _________ can lead to deficiency (below, above)
if __________ can lead to toxicity

greater, optimal, below, above


what is the mineral content in plants affected by

mineral content in soil


this macro mineral functions include bone structure, nerve function, blood clotting, and muscle contraction and found in both animals and plants.



what does a deficiency in calcium cause

rickets, osteomalacia (osteoporosis), milk fever


what is milk fever a result of

not being able to mobilize calcium fast enough to meet demands


this macro mineral's structure consist of bone development and calcium storage. the components of it include; DNA, RNA, ATP



this deficiency causes rickets or osteomalacia, pica (depraved appetite chewing wood or bones), low fertility, poor milk production

phosphorus deficiency


this macro mineral is for osmotic balance of body fluids, nerve conduction, and found in a variety of different feed