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Regarding blood cells
a. red blood cells contain hemoglobin that binds to oxygen
b. platelets are also called thrombocytes and are involved in blood clotting
c. white blood cells are also called leukocytes and they help prevent disease
d. erythrocytes carry CO 2 bound to myoglobin

not d because bound to hemoglobin


Amino Acids
a. are used to build proteins, such as myosin, actin, insulin, and immunoglobulins
b. can limit the amount of protein synthesis if they are not present in sufficient amounts
c. must all be consumed in the diet, because all are essential
d. can be made by microbes provided with nitrogen in the rumen of cattle

not c because not all are essential


Compared with white muscle fibers, red skeletal muscle fibers
a. are tonic and most resistant to fatigue
b. are utilized more during light exercise
c. are smaller and have more surface area: volume
d. have more myoglobin and more oxidative metabolism



Crude Fiber
a. consists of cellulose and hemicellulose
b. has a laxative effect
c. helps maintain muscular tone of digestive tract
d. is more digestible than starch

not d because it less digestible


Regarding muscle
a. cardiac and smooth muscles are both striated at all times
b. skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated, whereas cardiac and smooth muscle cells are mononucleated
c. smooth muscle cells are associated with the intestine, stomach, and blood vessels
d. cardiac muscle has abundant mitochondria and glycogen for energy production

not a because......?


Double muscling
a. can occur in cattle and dogs
b. results in less body fat
c. is associated with a higher % of white muscle fibers
d. can cause dystocia, which is birthing dificulty



a. increases in the blood after a meal, and increases glucose uptake into cells
b. decreases glucose uptake into cells, which increases blood glucose
c. is a protein hormone produced by the pancrease
d. is an endocrine hormone, because it is produced in one location and acts in many different locations

not b becauseeee......?


Regarding carbohydrates
a. amylose is a digestible starch
b. maltose is the sweetest disaccharide
c. sucrose consists of glucose and fructose
d. galactose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar

not b because sucrose is


Growth hormone
a. is produced by the anterior pituitary, which is a portion of the brain
b. is classified as a steroid hormone
c. is also called somatotropin, and the release of somatotropin is inhibited by somatostatin
d. causes goiter formation, which is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid

not b because it is protein hormone
not d because just fancy words?


a. typically decreases during stress
b. is the "fight or flight" hormone
c. is also called adrenaline and is produced in the adrenal gland
d. is an amine hormone, made from the amino acid tyrosine

not a because it increases during stress


a. are composed of oleic and linoleic acids
b. contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
c. include amylose, cellulose, and glycogen
d. include glucose arabinose, and hemicellulose

a is in regards to fatty acids
d- does not include glucose as a polysacardie


a. bind specific hormones with high affinity
b. for protein hormones are located in/on the cell membrane
c. may be located within cells, and some are found in the cell nucleus
d. are proteins capable of signal transduction or interaction with cellular components such as DNA



a. is combined with carbon dioxide and energy from the sun to produce glucose and oxygen
b. is a solvent that is also a transporting medium
c. is produced when peptide bonds are formed during protein synthesis
d, is produced when lactose is hydrolyzed to form glucose and mannose

not d because it consists of glucose and galactose


which of the following are approved by the FDA as growth regulators in meat animals
a. trebolone acetate
b. estradiol
c. growth hormone
d. rectopamine hydrochloride



Fat deposition
a. is less restricted than muscle growth because new fat cells can form throughout life
b. has a low priority for nutrients and is restricted when animals consume a low energy ration
c. results from an increase in fat cell number followed by fat accumulation in cells
d. begins prenatally with the differentiation of mesodermal stem cells



During animal development and growth
a. embryonic growth accounts for 15-20% of the prenatal period
b. myotubes (immature muscle fibers) are formed when myoblasts differentiate and fuse together
c. ectododerm gives rise to internal organs
d. long bones grow in length where epipheseal

not c ectoderm it is endoderm


endurance training an animal that has been a short distance racer would be expected to
a. increase mitochondria in skeletal muscle cells
b. do nothing since the animal already trained was already trained
c. increase muscle fiber size and muscel mass
d. increase muscle's ability to use lipid for energy



Because locomotion is critical for survival, skeletal muscle has a higher priority for nutrients than the brain, bone, and adipose tissue
t or f



Methionine, lysine and arginine are essential amino acids, which re not produced in sufficient quantities by the body and must be derived from the diet
t or f



The amount of estrogen in 3 ounces of beef from a steer with an estrogenic implant is approximately double what a non-pregnant woman's body will produce daily



During intense and strenuous exercise, white (type IIB) muscle fibers are recruited, and the carbohydrate, ___________, becomes the major fuel used for energy.



Nerve cells, which are also ________, receive signals from adjacent cells via their _________ and convey the signal as electrical action potentials along their axons.

Neurons, dendrites


At the terminal bulb of the nerve cell, release of acetylcholine, which is a ______________ conveys the nerve signal to an adjacent muscle cell.



Acetylocholine binds to receptors that are actually channels that open to allow ________ to flow into skeletal muscle cells and initiate an action potential, or wave of membrane depolarization. This wave of depolarization travels down the muscle membrane, called the _______________ and extensions of this membrane, called transverse tubules, extend to the interior of the muscle fiber.

Sodium, sarcolemma


A five carbon simple sugar that is a component of nucleic acids (DNA RNA) is ____________.



When a stem cell acquires characteristics that are unique to a bone cell (osteoblast), one could say the cell has undergone the process of _____________. Osteoblasts and myoblasts are derived from _________ (mesodermal, mesodermal, or ectodermal) stem cells, whereas brain, nerves, skin and hair are all derived from _____________ stem cells.

differentiation, mesodermal, ectodermal


A protein referred to as the _________________ on the transverse tubule senses the membrane depolarization. This protein interacts with the _____________ release channel located on the terminal cisternae. Upon its release, this mineral binds to troponin C and causes a complex of proteins to move and thereby expose the regions on the ________ filament where the myosin heads bind and initiate the crossbridge cycle for muscle contraction.

Voltage sensory, calcium, actin


Double muscling results from natural mutations in the _____________ gene, which codes for a protein that is an inhibitor of muscle growth.



An increase in muscle cells size results from the accumulation of muscle proteins, which happens whenever protein synthesis is greater than protein _______________.



Oxygenated blood from the ____________ veins comes from the lungs enters the heart at the left ____________. This oxygenated blood is pumped through the aorta to the body by the left _____________, which is a thick , muscular region of the heart.

Pulmonary, atrium, ventricle