Flashcards in Section 1 Deck (98):
Name a few ways animals benefit humans.
Food, fuel, shelter, recreation, pharmaceutical etc...
What is the definition of domestication of animals?
Bringing wild animals under the control of humans and eventually improve the species by selection, mating, and handling.
What is the goal of domesticating animals?
Provide improved products and services for humans
What species did the dog come from?
Advantages of dogs
Hunting, work, protection, company
Scientific name of sheep
What climate are goats most effective at?
Scientific name of pig
Sus scrofa domesticus
About how many years ago were pigs domesticated and from what species
8000-9000 European wild pig
How much of an animal is used in slaughter?
All of it
What were cattle derived from?
Where did Bos primigenius originate and where was the last one killed?
Originated in: Europe
What are the two different species of cattle
Where did Bos indicus originate?
Describe a Bos indicus
Hump/big ears and loose skin
Where would you find Bos indicus in the us
Mainly in the southwest
Where would one find Bos Taurus In us
What is the scientific name of a horse
Why was a horse not domesticated first
Harder to catch
Scientific name of a chicken
How many years ago were chickens domesticated
And from what
7500-8000 years ago from jungle fowl
When were aquaculture domesticated
They weren't domesticated they were farmed
What is the definition of agriculture
Utilization of biological processes to produce food, fiber and other products useful for humans
What's another name for the land grant college act of 1862
The morrill act
Who sponsored the morrill act?
Justin smith morrill
What did the morrill act propose
That federal owned land be sold and the proceeds used to establish at least one college in each state
When was the morrill act passed
What is the morrill act Based on
The northwest ordinance passed in 1787 authorizing sale of public lands for support of education
How many acres donated to each state
30,000 acres (for each member of congress donated to each state
What is the morrill act to be used for
For the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college
What was the morrill act designed for
To provide access to the common person
What is the hatch act of 1887
Federal funding to establish agricultural experiment stations for research
What did the smith lever act of 1914 provide
For the cooperative extension system (4-h)
What did the smith Hughes act of 1917 do
vocational training in high school
What is the big picture on the us food expenditures
It compares low to the rest of the world
Inexpensive foot supply
Ya food intake patterns
Went from satity foods to fatty foods.
How have animal products contributed to human nutrition?
People choose food based on cultural products that are highly desirable
The us is considered a society on the run because ...
People east fast food and always trying to make things faster
Is the current global food supply adequate for all?
Yes but 800 million are inadequately fed due to inequitable distribution
Name 3 human inedible materials for animal production
Food and fiber processing by products
Name two types of feed for animal production that are edible for humans
Some oil seed meals
How much will global food demand increase by due to population and middle class growth
Where will 70% of global food come from?
The continued use of safe, efficacious technology to increase population
What will be required across the entire global food chain to keep people fed
Has modern agriculture become more green?
Growth products help
Mortality rate is down
100% use of product
Has efficiency in agriculture improved give an example
It takes less dairy cows to produce enough milk
Definition of breed
Selecting animals that look like eachother to pass traits uniformly to offspring
Def of pedigree
Record of an individuals ancestry
What is the most registered breed of cattle
What is the least registered breed
What is intramuscular fat
Fat within the muscle
What is intermuscular fat?
Fat around the muscle
Herefords are described as...
Hardy, good disposition
Charolais is a ____________________ ______________________
Continental European (France)
Why are Charolais used as a terminal sire
Because heavy muscled/fast growth
Simmental originated from...
Switzerland Germany France
Simmental are considered a _______ ________________ breed
Gestation period of a cow
How long between calving to weaning for calves
6-8 monthsv205 days?
What age and about what weight is ideal for market beef?
1300 lbs 18 months
Compared to dairy, beef produce how much milk
Mod. To low
Compared to beef who have 70+, how many breeds of dairy
Is crossbreeding common in dairy cows
No not at all
What dairy cow on average produces the most milk
Holstein from holland
What dairy cow produces the least amount of milk
Jersey from jersey isle
What is negative energy balance?
Can't eat enough to offset what they put into their milk during lactation
What is the most common Bos indicus influenced breed
Brahman which creates other breeds
Advantage/disadvantage of Brahman
Foot root resistant
No marble in intramuscular fat
How long are cattle in a packer
Less than 24 hours because then feed industry has to feed them.
3-7 days at most
What genetic trait does a dairy focus on? Beef industry?
Multiple (carcass, docility, weaning weight)
Brown Swiss have high milk _____, but low milk ________________
What is advantage of jersey dairy cow
Milk fat %
Good for ice cream
When should you rebates a cow
80 days or that first dotted line on chart
When is a females Highest feed requirement and why
Lactation because that is when the calf rapidly grows
When does the fetus/cow grow the fastest?
What describes how much an animal eats!
Dry matter intake
Why are dairy cows usually a i Ed
Because dairy Bulls are mean
When do heifers start breeding
15 months to calve at 2 years
They try to get heifer to weigh 65% of her mature body weight before breeding
What is the estrus cycle?
What is the brief part of the estrous cycle that lasts only 24 hours
Difference of estrus and estrous
Estrous=the whole cycle?
What is the biggest management concern for breeding cows
A cow should calf every ____ months (dairy) (beef)
What is colostrum
Antibodies in first milk to calf to help boost immune system. Gets rid of foreign bodies in blood stream
What is another name for antibodies?
How long are calves fed milk that is not salable
Why are calves introduced to dry feed early
To stimulate rumen function and reduce costs
Why are calves raised seperatley
To reduce disease and competition for feed
Calves need colostrum within the first _______ hours
24 hours but 3 hours is best because that way their stomachs have not developed and will allow calf to absorb it more
What is the average birth weight of calves
Why does birth weight differ in sheep
-# of lambs born
In sheep you want how many lambs
2 because (twins) 2 tests
What is a lambs average birth weight
What age are sheep at first lambing
1 compared to cow which is 2
What is the gestation period of a sheep
What is a seasonal breeders
Only breed half the year
What does seasonal anestrous mean
Times where sheep are not cycling