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Flashcards in Section 1 Deck (98):
1

Name a few ways animals benefit humans.

Food, fuel, shelter, recreation, pharmaceutical etc...

2

What is the definition of domestication of animals?

Bringing wild animals under the control of humans and eventually improve the species by selection, mating, and handling.

3

What is the goal of domesticating animals?

Provide improved products and services for humans

4

What species did the dog come from?

Wolf

5

Advantages of dogs

Hunting, work, protection, company

6

Scientific name of sheep

Ovis Aries

7

What climate are goats most effective at?

Hot climates

8

Scientific name of pig

Sus scrofa domesticus

9

About how many years ago were pigs domesticated and from what species

8000-9000 European wild pig

10

How much of an animal is used in slaughter?

All of it

11

What were cattle derived from?

Bos primigenius

12

Where did Bos primigenius originate and where was the last one killed?

Originated in: Europe
Killed: Poland

13

What are the two different species of cattle

Bos indicus
Bos Taurus

14

Where did Bos indicus originate?

India

15

Describe a Bos indicus

Hump/big ears and loose skin

16

Where would you find Bos indicus in the us

Mainly in the southwest

17

Where would one find Bos Taurus In us

Northwestern area

18

What is the scientific name of a horse

Equus caballus

19

Why was a horse not domesticated first

Harder to catch
???

20

Scientific name of a chicken

Gallus domesticus

21

How many years ago were chickens domesticated
And from what

7500-8000 years ago from jungle fowl

22

When were aquaculture domesticated

They weren't domesticated they were farmed

23

What is the definition of agriculture

Utilization of biological processes to produce food, fiber and other products useful for humans

24

What's another name for the land grant college act of 1862

The morrill act

25

Who sponsored the morrill act?

Justin smith morrill

26

What did the morrill act propose

That federal owned land be sold and the proceeds used to establish at least one college in each state

27

When was the morrill act passed

1862

28

What is the morrill act Based on

The northwest ordinance passed in 1787 authorizing sale of public lands for support of education

29

How many acres donated to each state

30,000 acres (for each member of congress donated to each state

30

What is the morrill act to be used for

For the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college

31

What was the morrill act designed for

To provide access to the common person

32

What is the hatch act of 1887

Federal funding to establish agricultural experiment stations for research

33

What did the smith lever act of 1914 provide

For the cooperative extension system (4-h)

34

What did the smith Hughes act of 1917 do

vocational training in high school

35

What is the big picture on the us food expenditures

It compares low to the rest of the world

Inexpensive foot supply

36

Ya food intake patterns

Went from satity foods to fatty foods.

37

How have animal products contributed to human nutrition?

People choose food based on cultural products that are highly desirable

38

The us is considered a society on the run because ...

People east fast food and always trying to make things faster

39

Is the current global food supply adequate for all?

Yes but 800 million are inadequately fed due to inequitable distribution

40

Name 3 human inedible materials for animal production

Forage
Crop residue
Food and fiber processing by products

41

Name two types of feed for animal production that are edible for humans

Cereal grain
Some oil seed meals

42

How much will global food demand increase by due to population and middle class growth

100%

43

Where will 70% of global food come from?

The continued use of safe, efficacious technology to increase population

44

What will be required across the entire global food chain to keep people fed

Close collaboration

45

Has modern agriculture become more green?

Overall yes
Growth products help
Mortality rate is down
100% use of product

46

Has efficiency in agriculture improved give an example

Yes.
It takes less dairy cows to produce enough milk

47

Definition of breed

Selecting animals that look like eachother to pass traits uniformly to offspring

48

Def of pedigree

Record of an individuals ancestry

49

What is the most registered breed of cattle

Angus

50

What is the least registered breed

Santa gertrudis

51

What is intramuscular fat

Fat within the muscle

52

What is intermuscular fat?

Fat around the muscle

53

Herefords are described as...

Hardy, good disposition

54

Charolais is a ____________________ ______________________
Breed

Continental European (France)

55

Why are Charolais used as a terminal sire

Because heavy muscled/fast growth

56

Simmental originated from...

Switzerland Germany France

57

Simmental are considered a _______ ________________ breed

Dual purpose

58

Gestation period of a cow

283 days

59

How long between calving to weaning for calves

6-8 monthsv205 days?

60

What age and about what weight is ideal for market beef?

1300 lbs 18 months

61

Compared to dairy, beef produce how much milk

Mod. To low

62

Compared to beef who have 70+, how many breeds of dairy

1-5

63

Is crossbreeding common in dairy cows

No not at all

64

What dairy cow on average produces the most milk

Holstein from holland
21,000

65

What dairy cow produces the least amount of milk

Jersey from jersey isle
14,000

66

What is negative energy balance?

Can't eat enough to offset what they put into their milk during lactation

67

What is the most common Bos indicus influenced breed

Brahman which creates other breeds

68

Advantage/disadvantage of Brahman

Advantage:
Heat tolerant
Insect resistant
Foot root resistant

Disadvantage:
No marble in intramuscular fat

69

How long are cattle in a packer

Less than 24 hours because then feed industry has to feed them.
3-7 days at most

70

What genetic trait does a dairy focus on? Beef industry?

Dairy:
Milk production

Beef:
Multiple (carcass, docility, weaning weight)

71

Brown Swiss have high milk _____, but low milk ________________

Fat, production

72

What is advantage of jersey dairy cow

Milk fat %
Good for ice cream

73

When should you rebates a cow

80 days or that first dotted line on chart

74

When is a females Highest feed requirement and why

Lactation because that is when the calf rapidly grows

75

When does the fetus/cow grow the fastest?

3 trimester

76

What describes how much an animal eats!

Dry matter intake

77

Why are dairy cows usually a i Ed

Because dairy Bulls are mean

78

When do heifers start breeding

15 months to calve at 2 years

They try to get heifer to weigh 65% of her mature body weight before breeding

79

What is the estrus cycle?

?

80

What is the brief part of the estrous cycle that lasts only 24 hours

Estrus =heat

81

Difference of estrus and estrous

Estrus=heat
Estrous=the whole cycle?

82

What is the biggest management concern for breeding cows

Heat detection

83

A cow should calf every ____ months (dairy) (beef)

Dairy: 13
Beef: 12

84

What is colostrum

Antibodies in first milk to calf to help boost immune system. Gets rid of foreign bodies in blood stream

85

What is another name for antibodies?

Immunoglobulins= protein

86

How long are calves fed milk that is not salable

6-8 weeks

87

Why are calves introduced to dry feed early

To stimulate rumen function and reduce costs

88

Why are calves raised seperatley

To reduce disease and competition for feed

89

Calves need colostrum within the first _______ hours

24 hours but 3 hours is best because that way their stomachs have not developed and will allow calf to absorb it more

90

What is the average birth weight of calves

75lbs

91

Why does birth weight differ in sheep

-breed
-# of lambs born

92

In sheep you want how many lambs

2 because (twins) 2 tests

93

What is a lambs average birth weight

10 lbs

94

What age are sheep at first lambing

1 compared to cow which is 2

95

What is the gestation period of a sheep

147 days

96

What is a seasonal breeders

Only breed half the year

97

What does seasonal anestrous mean

Times where sheep are not cycling

98

What is a short day breeder and give exp.

They start to cycle when days start to getting shorter.
Sheep