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Flashcards in AVS 209 Quiz Deck (60):
1

Which of the following have contributed to declining sheep numbers in the US
a. are larger
b. have fewer disease outbreaks
c. have lower lambing rates
d. have less investment in facilities
e. less demand for wool
f. declining lamb consumption
g. competition for range lands
h. inability of rams to successfully breed ewes
I. increase in wolves

ABCDEFGI

2

Which are recommended management a few weeks before or shortly after lambing?
a. open teats, or strip ewe
b. clip and iodine naval of lamb
c. vaccinate new born lambs for entertoxemia
d. ensure lambs get colostrum shortly after birth

ABD
C should be newborns

3

With regard to sheep production
a. Austrailia has the largest sheep population of any country
b. lamb supply in the US has increased from domestic production in the last decade
c. sheep numbers in the US have declined from 56 million to 6 million since 1942
d. Idaho is in the top 10 sheep producing states in the US and Texas is the largest producer
e. lamb meat supply in the US has been maintained by increasing imports

CDE
a= china
b= decreased?

4

The estrous cycle of an ewe is approximately ______ days. If she becomes pregnant, normal gestation length is about _______ days. While the average lambing rate is 1.3 lambs per ewe, an ideal lambing rate would be ____ lambs per ewe, because _____________________________________________________ (provide brief rationale)

17
150
2
introducing lambs to a higher quality feed before going to production

5

Sheep are seasonal breeders, and are considered (long or short) ___________ day breeders, although the use of reproductive technology now allows most sheep to be fertile "out of season"

Short

6

Prior to breeding, the common practice of increasing a ewe's plane of nutrition to stimulate estrus and increase ovulation rate is known as __________. Provide a scenario when a producer may be motivated to use this management practice: ______________________

flushing
increase lamb crop

7

A mature ram should be expected to breed approximately _____ ewes

30

8

Provide one reason why a ewe may be culled prior to the breeding season

she is not a high producer
?

9

What is a typical weight range for newborn lambs and why is this trait highly variable?

8-15lbs, its variable because ewes can have singles, twins, triplets, ect...

10

Provide an example of a hair sheep breed, and state two production situations where it may be beneficial to use hair sheep

barbadous- when you cant shear the sheep
in a hotter climate

11

Fine wool breeds of sheep include
a. merino
b. dorper
c. rambouillet
d. Lincoln
e. Barbados blackbelly

AC

possibly B????

12

Meat and sire breeds of sheep include
a. Suffolk
b. Yorkshire
c. Hampshire
d. dorset
e. Berkshire

ACD

13

Wool value and/or utility is improved by
a. larger fiber diameter
b. black fibers
c. skirting the fleece
d. feeding a diet with less than 8% protein

C

14

Compared with farm-flock sheep production, range flocks typically
a. are larger
b. have fewer disease problems
c. have lower lambing rates
d. shear sheep more frequently
e. have more complete production records
f. have less invested in facilities
g. have higher death loss during lambing
h. availability of reliable herders/sheperds

ABCFGH

15

Feedlot Steers
a. gain weight faster than heifers
b. typically gain more than 3 pounds a day
c. require more feed per pound of gain than heifers
d. are easier to manage than bulls

ABD

16

Feedlot diets
a. are high energy and can cause acidosis, but this problem is minimized by feeding of ionophores
b. often contain non-protein nitrogen such as urea, or other protein supplementation
c. typically contain both grain and roughage
d. may contain optaflexx or zilmax near the end of the finishing period

ABCD

17

Growth promoting implants, which at placed in the ears of cattle, often contain a combination of estrogenic and androgenic steroid hormones, and these are commonly used by the US feedlot industry to increase average daily gain and improve efficiency of cattle

True

18

A mature Suffolk ewe may weigh over 250 lbs, and typical market lambs weigh about 140 lbs

true

19

Sheep's milk is sometimes used for cheese production, and since it has about 18% milk solids non fat, a pound of sheep's milk will produce about twice as much cheese as a pound of cow's milk

true

20

_________ by-products are a major source of economical feed for feedlot cattle in the Northwest US and these by products are not commonly fed in the Midwest

potatoe

21

Sheep are seasonal breeders, and are considered _______ day breeders. A meat breed of sheep known for out of season breeding is the __________

short
dorset

22

Barbados blackbelly, St. Croix, and Dorper breeds are classified as ________ sheep and are not typically sheared.

hair

23

Why is the plan to rebuild US sheep industry called the 2+2+2= rebuild plan?

Increase ewes in flock by 2%, 2 lambs per ewe, increase number of lambs harvested by 2%

24

Desirable characteristics of breeding livestock include
a. adequate flex to the pasterns
b. spring of rib
c. above average EPD's for growth and birthing ease
d. long, wide, and level rump structure

ABCD

25

Indicators of muscularity in livestock include
a. fullness of jowl or brisket
b. width of leg placement
c. depth of flank
d. thickness in the forearm and from stifle to stifle
e. depth of jowl or brisket
f. uniformity of toe size
g. thickness of hind leg

BDG

26

During breeding female selection
a. gilts with blind or inverted nipples should be culled
b. animals with too little angle in their joints should be culled before animals with too much flex
c. an infantile vulva may indicate an underdeveloped reproductive tract
d. structural correctness is the most important indicator of longevity

ABCD

27

Priority traits for visual evaluation of breeding livestock include:
a. dentition to determine animal age
b. hock angle and flexibility
c. depth of body and width of chest
d. reproductive tract development

BCD

28

What is meant by balance in breeding animals, and why is balance important?

balance in breeding animals is when the animal looks proportionate to itself. It is important because looks help sell.

29

Describe two characteristics of an ideal foot (below pasterns) for a gilt, ewe, or cow.

large feet to balance on (small feet wear down)
large spacing between the toes (equal balance between toes)

30

For each animal in the photographs, state two desirable or two undesirable characteristics

undesirable no movement in the stifle
undesirable little bend in the pasterns

flat back desirable
wide through the shoulder desirable

31

Stocker or backgrounder cattle
a. often consume forage or roughage as their primary feed
b. utilize inexpensive feedstuffs to obtain more than 1.5 lbs of body weight gain per day
c. may be more valuable in the late winter or early spring due to limited cattle supply
d. commonly exhibit acidosis and bloat due to high protein in the diet
e. are often fed crop residues or forage
f. typically gain more than 3 pounds per day
g. are typically cattle that have recently been weaned
h. commonly exhibit acidosis due to high protein

ABCEG

32

Feedlot cattle
a. fed rapidly fermentable grains can get acidosis if not adapted slowly to the grain
b. may receive urea, soybean meal or canola meal as a protein source
c. will generally exhibit compensatory growth if thin when entering the feedlot
d. will eat more during hot weather or in muddy conditions than in cool dry conditions
e. are typically fed ionophores like rumensin to reduce acidosis
f. often receive non-protein nitrogen or soybean meal as a protein source
g. are frequently implanted with androgenic and estrogenic steroids to improve efficency

ABCEFG

33

What are the primary intended uses of cattle produced by seedstock producers and commercial cow calf producers

seedstock = breeding stock
commercial = beef producing

34

What is bloat? what is one way to either prevent or treat bloat

bloat is when a frothy layer of liquid sits in the rumen stomach and prevents gas from leaving
prevent by adapting animal to different feeds

35

Be able to distinguish between sickle hocks, post legges, and normal.

kk

36

Provide the top three visual criteria you would use in selecting a charolais bull and briefly justify your criteria

leg structure- the hocks to pasterns need to be correct so that the animal can walk and distribute weight properly
volume and depth- do not want a small weak cow
correct bone structure- wide stance, straight back

37

In addition to visual appraisal, what are two other methods used to evaluate breeding animals

sex characteristics
pedigree
performance diers
genetic testing

38

Wool value and/or utility is influenced by
a. fiber diameter and crimp
b. strength
c. color
d. staple length

ABCD

39

Within 24 hours after birth, lambs are typically given iron shots to prevent anemia and are vaccinated against white muscle disease

false

40

castrated male sheep are referred to as _______, but a gonadally intact male goat is a _______

wether
buck

41

Wool has more value and or utility if it
a. has smaller fiber diameter and more crimp
b. is white and can be dyed
c. is from healthy sheep fed more than 8% protein
d. is from the breech vs the neck

ABC

42

Regarding breeds of sheep
a. boer are the most common meat sheep
b. merino and Rambouillet produce fine wool
c. Barbados blackbelly and dorper are hair sheep that do not require shearing
d. Lincoln and Romney produce long coarse wool
e. Suffolk sheep, a sire breed known for rapid growth and meat quality are most common in US
f. Dorset sheep a white faced meat breed are known for being out of season breeders
g. Rambouillet are a fine wool breed used in development of targhee and Columbia breeds
h. East Friesian sheep can produce over 1100 lbs of milk in a 220 day lactation

BCDEFGH

43

Which are recommended management soon after lambing
a. open teats, or strip ewe
b. clip and iodine naval of lamb
c. ensure the lambs nurse to receive colostrum
d. vaccinate ewes against C. prefringens types C and D

ABC

44

Wool
a. is somewhat flame resistant
b. grows in clusters, called staples
c. can absorb 30% of its weight in moisture and not feel wet
d. can be used for clothing carpets and insulation

ABCD

45

BEcause of his youth, a yearling ram (ram lamb) should be able to service 25-50 ewes, whereas a mature ram would be expected to cover only 15-30 ewes in a breeding season

False

46

About 50% of global wool clip comes from the US, cine and new zealand

False
Australia not US

47

Lambs raised in feedlot will typically gain between .5 and 1 lbs per day, and over 95% of the market lambs produced in the US will grade choice or prime

True

48

Vaccination of a ewe and a female llama 3 to 4 weeks prior to birthing may protect lambs and crias from disease, but consumption of colostrum by the offspring is necessary for this to be true

true

49

Sheep are typically bred in ____________ (month/months). Ewes are sometimes provided a higher plane of nutrition for a few weeks prior to breeding to increase __________ rate, and this practice is referred to as _________. A producer may not wish to do this if ___________________________________________________

October-November
ovulation
flushing
their ewes are known to have triplets and do not want any hobo lambs

50

Ewes typically have a _______ day estrous cycle, which means if not pregnant they would be expected to display signs of estrus at that frequency. The typical gestation period of a ewe is ______ days, and she will generally ______ (lose or gain) weight for several weeks after lambing. If a ewe has twins, the typical birth weight of each lamb would be ____ lbs

17
147
gain
8

51

The wool from one sheep is referred to as a _______. this is sheared off in one piece , and is referred to as greasy or raw wool. The amount of wool shorn from the sheep from the sheep in a flock is called the _____. Wool from clean sheep is desirable and higher yielding than wool with high vegetable matter or manure. A _______ refers to wool that has manure attatched to it

fleece
clip
tay

52

A meat breed of sheep known for out of season breeding is the ________, although the use of repro tech now allows other breeds to be fertile out of season. _________ sheep are another white faced breed that was developed in Idaho by crossing Rambouillet crossed with Columbia and Rambouillet cross with Lincoln and Corriedale sheep are a duel purpose breed. You may see them at the UI Sheep center

Dorset
Targhee

53

Hampshire and _______ are both common meat breeds of sheep that produce medium wool with some black fibers

suffolk

54

Why would you see a larger number of hair sheep in Texas than in Idaho

because hair sheep are more heat tolerant which works well in texas

55

Under what circumstances would you allow a ewe to raise triplets

if it was not her first time and she produced lots of milk

56

structural correctness and volume are higher priorities when evaluating market livestock than breeding livestock

false

57

Body compostition is amore important selection trait for market livestock than breeding animals

true

58

What is a typical weight range for newborn lambs and why is this trait highly variable

8-12 lbs
because of how many lambs that one ewe gave birth to triplets lead to smaller weights

59

provide example of hair sheep and two production situations where it may be beneficial to use them

?
1. do not have to shear because they shed
2. ?

60

Enterotoxemia
a. can occur in sheep
b. is caused by selenium deficiency
c. can be caused by excessive milk or grain consumption
d. can be avoided by vaccinating newborn animals

AC