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Flashcards in Digestion Deck (64):
1

The physical, chemical and enzymatic means the body uses to render a feed/food ready for absorption

Digestion

2

What controls appetite and food intake?

Hypothalamus (hunger and satiety)
Blood glucose levels
Physical capacity
Environmental temperature

3

What are the three types of digestive processes with examples

Physical/ mechanical (chewing/muscular action of digestive tract)

Chemical (hydrocloric acid denatures proteins/ secretory)

Enzymatic
-proteases, amylase, lipase
-catalyze chemical reactions with proteins
-hydrolysis

4

What are the two types of stomachs?

What digestion does the complex one do?

Monogastrics
Ruminants

Microbial digestion

5

What do the following eat

Carnivore

Omnivore

Herbivore

Eat animal flesh mostly (produce more lysosomes)

Consume plants and animals

Depend on plants for food

6

How animals bring food into their mouth

Prehension

7

This is known as chewing or regurgitating or chewing cud

Poultry rely on grinding action in gizzard for this

Mastication

8

What is the purpose of mastication

To break down smaller particles which increases surface area which makes it more assessable to digestion

9

This is the secretion and mixing of saliva with food

Salivation (salivary glands)

10

What does saliva do

- lubricates

Dissolves

Cleanses

Buffers stomach/rumen acid

11

What is the act of swallowing

Deglutition

12

Food passes down the _______ to the stomach

Esophagus

13

What is the true stomach but also called proventriculus in birds

Abomasum

14

In the glandular stomach also known as _______________, what type of digestion begins and which one is there more of

Abomasum

Enzymatic and chemical digestion

More chemical

15

In ruminants, ______________ occurs first in rumen/reticulum

Fermentation

16

_________________ acid is secreted into the stomach

Hydrochloric

17

What are the three parts of the small intestine?

What does each do

Duodenum- digestion via pancreatic (mostly) and liver secretions

Jejunum- longest portion and major site of ABSORPTION (some digestion)

Ileum: absorption and connects to the large intestine

18

What is the act of expelling fecal matter via rectum or cloaca

Defecation

19

What is urination, components include nitrogenous compounds, minerals and water and is regulated by the kidney

Micturition

20

In micturition, what are the nitrogenous compounds in mammals

Birds

Urea mammals

Uric acid

21

What can monogastrics not use as a source of nutrients

Fiber or
High fiber feed stuff

22

What is the one exception in monogastrics that allow some to digest fiber

Functional cecum

23

What are the roles the stomach plays

Acid secretion
Enzyme production
Food storage
Release of chyme to small intestine

24

Go through the order of the monogastrics stomach

Mouth- esophagus- abomasum- duodenum- jejunem- ileum- cecum- colon- rectum

25

What would a carnivores by more adept at absorbing?

Amino acids in the jejunem

26

What are the specialized parts of a chicken turkey and duck

What do they do

Crop: feed softening and storage

Proventriculus: glandular stomach, acid and enzymes

Gizzard: grinding aided by grit important since birds have no teeth

27

What % of ruminants at birth is rumen, reticulum, omasum?

Abomasum?

30%

70%

28

When is a calf rumen functional and what does it do

7 weeks

Fermentation
Decline in blood glucose
Production of vfas

29

In a mature ruminant what % is the following
Rumen

Reticulum

Omasum

Abomasum

Rumen 80%

Reticulum 5%

Omasum 7%

Abomasum 8%

30

What part of a ruminant is the fermentation vat, microbes synthesize amino acids, b vitamins, microbes become food

How much digestion occurs here

Rumen

60-90%

31

Looks like a honeycomb

Mixes

Pacemaker for rumen contracts

Reticulum

32

Many plies (book)

Absorbs water, Electrolytes and some VFAs

Omasum

33

This is the true stomach it has acid and enzymes

Abomasum

34

What accounts for 60% of energy animals absorb

Vfa's

35

Between what two parts of ruminants is there a free flow of digestion

Rumen and reticulum

36

Where is the microvilli located (brush border)

What does it do

Small intestine jejunem

Increase surface area

37

What covers the villi and micro villi

Epithelial cells

38

Where does carbohydrate digestion begin?

For humans monkeys and pigs the mouth because of salivary amylase

For ruminants (no salivary amylase) it begins in the small intestine where pancreatic amylase is secreted into duodenum

39

What does amylase hydrolyze starch into

Maltose maltotriose and a limit dextrins

40

Where does completion of carb digestion happen

Small intestine mainly first two little in the ileum

41

In the small intestine during carb digestion pancreatic ________ is secreted into the ___________ after that additional _________ border enzymes are secreted into small intestine. These include _____________ , sucrase, and _____________ and lactase

amylase

Brush

Maltase

Isomaltase

42

In brush border enzymes, what does each break down and into what

Maltase
Sucrase
Isomaltase
Lactase

Maltase breaks down maltose to g and g

Sucrase breaks down sucrose to g and f

Isomaltase breaks down dextrins to produce maltose

Lactase breaks down lactose to g and galactose

43

What are absorbed in the small intestine during carb digestion?

Protein digestion?

Fats?

Simple sugars / monosaccharides

Amino acids (arginine lysine

Fatty acids

44

To digest cellulose what is required?

What produces cellulase to break cellulose to glucose

Micro organisms

Bacteria

45

__________ in the rumen use glucose to produce vfa's which are ________ ______ _______

Bacteria

Acetate propionate butyrate

46

What provide 50-70% if animals energy requirement

Vfa's

47

What fingerlike projections increase surface area

Papillae

48

In carbs each complex sugar for ruminants becomes what?

They get concerted into _______ ______ ______ or lactic acid
And the majority of carbs in rumens are going to do this

Glucose
Vfa's

49

Digesting proteins is equivalent to

Degradation or breakdown

50

Where does protein digestion begin

___________ acid supplies the proper _____ for enzymes pepsin and __________ to begin hydrolysis of proteins

Begins abomasum

Hydrochloric
PH
Rennin

51

What does pepsin do?

What does rennin do

Digests proteins into peptones and dippeptides (generic digest a lot of dif proteins)

Hydrolyzes Casein which coagulates into paracaseunate which pepsin digests

52

What pancreatic enzymes are secreted into the duodenum during protein digestion

Trypsin
Chymotrypsin
Carboxypeptidase

53

______________ peptidases are also present at the brush border of the intestinal epithelial cells

Intestinal

54

What is the end product of protein digestion and where absorbed

Amino acids

Jejenum

(Dipeptides and tripeptises are also absorbed and digested to amino acids in epithelial cells)

55

Where does fat digestion begin and with what enzyme

True stomach.
Gastric lipase

56

FAT DIGESTION
Bile __________ Lipids in the duedenum and increases _______________ __________ of lipid mixture 10,000x

Before this ______ salts are produced by the ________ and sores in the gall bladder

Emulsifies
Surface area


Bile
Liver

57

FAT DIGESTION
What is enzyme is added after increase of surface area and converts triglycerides to fatty acids and monoglycerides and it is primarily absorbed where

Pancreatic lipase

Jejunum

58

LIPID DIGESTION RUMINANTS

Rumen microorganisms ___________ dietary triglycerides to yield _______ _____ _______ and glycerol

Hydrolyze

Free fatty acids

59

T or F with non ruminants the fatty acids reaching the duodenum of ruminants are less saturated than dietary FA

False they are more highly saturated

60

R VS M DIGESTION
what type of DIGESTION does each do

Mono- chemical and enzymatic

R- microbial fermentation

61

In __________ fiber DIGESTION is limited but fiber is _______

Monogastrics
Necessary

62

What are 3 things that have fictional cecum

Where are the VFA produced and absorbed

Horses rats and rabbits

Large intestine

63

When rabbits eat soft fecal material fermented in cecum- contains what?

Cecotrophy

Contains proteins, B vitamins, V K all can by utilized

64

This is the act of eating feces the nutrients are digested and absorbed by upper GI tract

Coprophagy