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Flashcards in Remaining Material Deck (43):
1

What are the four phases of the estrous cycle and their definitions

1. Proestrus- period of follicle growth/estrogen production triggers estrus

2. Estrus- period female receptive to male/ surge in LH which causes ovulation after ovulation no more estrogen produced and no longer receptive

3. Metestrus- formation of corpus luteum/ progesterone produced/ uterus readied for fertilized egg

4. Diestrus- full functional CL/high progesterone/ FSH &LH suppressed/ at end CL regresses progesterone goes down and cycle restarts unless prego gestation begins

2

What are the environmental influences on reproduction

Body condition (fat)

Nutrition

Stress decreases fertility

Day length (seasonal breeders)

3

________________ is the increasing energy prior to breeding and increases ovulation rate

Flushing

4

Name long day breeders

Name short day breeders

L- horses

S- sheep, deer, elk, goats

5

What are reproductive behavior males perform

Bull

Ram

Boar

Stallion

Bull: sniffing flehmen response, chin resting, penile protrusion, attempted mounts

Ram: outstretched neck, sniffing, flehmen, penile protrusion

Boar: nuzzling, grinding teeth, foams at mouth, penile portrrusion, attempted mounts

Stallion: flehmen, high degree of excitement, penile portursion

6

What does the flehmen response do

Increases passage of air

7

What do females do for reproductive behavior

Cow

Mare

Ewe

Sow

Cow: increased locomotion and vocalization, grouping, chin resting, standing to be mounted

Mare: increased locomotion and tail flagging, urination, presents hindquarters to male, stands

Ewe: restlessness, urination, immobile stance

Sow: restlessness, immobile stance

8

Copulatory behavior where is semen deposited
Cattle

Sheep

Swine

Horses

Cattle: vagina unless AI then __________

Sheep: vagina/cervix

Swine: cervix/ uterus

Horses: cervix/ uterus

9

What is the period of time from conception until parturition? How many days in
Cows
Ewe
Sow
Mare

Gestation

Cow=283
Ewe=

10

What is a free Martin a result from

Why is this

A female born co-twin to a male

Make system develops earlier and the joining of placental blood systems.

11

In the exchange of primitive blood cells of the placenta of a freemartin, exposure to what hormone comes from the male

Androgens and Miller Ian in mullerian inhibitory hormone (MIH)

12

The following are signs of what

Distended abdomen
Mammary development and milk secretion
Swollen vulva and relaxed pelvic ligaments
Muccos discharge
Restlessness and separation from her
Active labor

Parturition

13

What is the typical number of offspring a
Cow
Ewe
Sow
Mare

Cow: 1
Ewe: 1-3
Sow: 6-14
Mare: 1

14

What is normal fetal presentation for a calf lamb and foal

Pig

The 3: front feet and head first

Pig: head first and front feet back (60%) or back feet first (40%)

Presentation for pigs is not as important to ease of delivery

15

What is difficulty in expelling the fetus

What is it mainly caused by

Dystocia

Mainly: abnormal presentation/ oversized fetus

Undersized pelvic opening
Weak dam
Excess dam body condition

16

Parturition applies only to mammals true or false

True

17

____________ is the process of producing milk

______________ is liquid that is secreted by the mammary gland made of water, triglycerides, lactose, protein, minerals, vitamins

Lactation

Milk

18

Dairy cattle produce over __________% of all milk consumed in the us

90%

19

From birth to puberty, man Mammary development occurs at the ___________ rate as the body

From puberty to each estrous cycle, mammary development ___________ due to _______________ and ______________ stimulation

At the same rate

Increases, progesterone, estradiol

20

When an animal is close to parturition, __________ is secreted to stimulate milk production

Prolactin

21

What is lactogenesis?

During parturition __________ and __________ decrease and lactogensis occurs

Formulation of milk

Progesterone and estrogen

22

What are the two stages of lactogenesis

In lactogenesis, epithelial cells change to a ________________ state

Stage 1: immunoglobulin uptake occurs, colostrum is formed

Stage 2: normal milk secretion, colostrum production stops

Secretory

23

Why is there higher protein in colostrum?

Because of antibodies/immunoglobulins

24

___________ is spherical and capable of storing milk produced by secretory cells

Alveoli

25

What are the three primary functions of secretory cells

They absorb nutrients from the blood stream

Transform nutrients into milk lactose, fat, and protein

Transport milk into lumen (center) of alveoli

26

What are the two hormones that are important in stimulating the synthesis of milk components

Prolactin and cortisol

27

The udder has _____ quarters that operate independently

Which part of the udder is the part that when it relaxes can get an infection in the udder

4

Tear canal

28

___________________ cells contract and squeeze alveoli and causes milk to travel down milk duct because of ____________

Where is oxytocin released from

Myoepithelial cells

Oxytocin

Pituitary gland

29

What is the name of the reservoir part of the udder

Gland sistern

30

What is the pathway for milk

From the milk ducts to to the gland cistern

From there to the teat cistern

And finally the streak canal

31

What is the muscular ring surrounding the streak canal
This prevents foreign material from entering

Test sphincter

32

How long does the test sphincter relax for which enables it to be susceptible to infection

15-60 mins

33

How many days after parturition does a cow peak in milk production?

What happens to the udder when milk production is no longer needed

50-70 days

The udder decreases in weight, volume and productivity

34

How many gallons of blood flow are required to produce 1 gallon of milk

400 gallons

35

Describe the changes over lactation period graph

Cow cant take in enough food to keep up with milk production so body condition goes down. Once they hit peak in milk production dry matter exceeds and allows body weight to catch up

36

What is the primary carbohydrate in milk?

What percent is it in the overall composition of milk?

Lactose

4.9%

37

_______ is 3.4% of the overall composition of milk. The major part of this is Casein which is ______%

Protein

80

38

This is known as the first milk and is high in protein especially ____________ and fat

Immunoglobulins

39

Fat is _____% of milk composition and is mostly in the form of _________

3.7%

Triglycerides

40

Water is ________ % of milk composition

87.3%

41

What are the two major minerals in milk composition

What vitamins are present in milk composition

Calcium and phosphorus

B complex (riboflavin)

Fortified (strengthened) by V D

42

What factors affect lactation

FREQUENCY of milking. The more you milk the higher production of milk you get

Good and nutrition (bad nutrition limits production)
Help here

Environmental temp (50-80 is optimum)

Estrus decreases yield

Disease (fat, lactose and Carson decrease) (sodium chloride increases)

43

This is inflammation of mammary gland causes by bacterial infection

It is also the leading cause of illness to dairy cattle

Mastitis