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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (37):
1

Insulin
a. is secreted from the liver
b. is a protein hormone
c. increases glucose uptake into cells
d. decreases blood glucose

BCD

2

Skeletal muscle fiber formation
a. occurs before birth of livestock species
b. requires differentiation of myoblasts
c. results from ossification of cartilage
d. is restricted in runt piglets

ABD

3

Which are important for skeletal muscle contraction or crossbridge cycling?
a. oxygen binding to myosin
b. calcium release from terminal cisternae
c. myosin binding to actin
d. ATP binding to myosin

BCD

4

Compared with white muscle fibers, red skeletal muscle fibers
a. are higher in myoglobin
b. rely more on glycolytic metabolism
c. are most resistant to fatigue
d. have more surface area: volume

ACD

5

Which of the following are approved growth promotants for pigs in the U.S.?
a. Estradiol
b. Trenbolone acetate
c. Progesterone
d. paylean (ractopamine)

D

6

Cortisol
a. is a steroid hormone
b. is typically increased during stress
c. is produced in the anterior pituitary
d. is also called adrenaline

AB

7

Apoptosis refers to a joint disease caused by insufficient articular cartilage.

False

8

Leptin is produced by adipose tissue, and acts on the brain to decrease the appetite (reduce food intake) of humans and animals. If heifers get too far, leptin can also impair development of their mammary glands.

True

9

Because locomotion is critical for survival, skeletal muscle has a higher priority for nutrients than the brain, bone, and adipose tissue.

False

10

Bone and skeletal muscle are derived from mesodermal stem cells, whereas internal organs are derived from ectoderm, and the brain and skin are derived from endoderm.

False

11

Myofibrils are the organelles of contraction in skeletal muscle, and lifting heavy weights lead to an increase in the number of myofibrils in a muscle fiber.

true

12

True growth is the increase in size or mass of structural tissues or organs, but does not include excess fat accumulation.

True

13

A hormone is synthesized in ductless glands and secreted into the blood, where it travels to another tissue and evokes a response after binding to a _______________. This type of hormone action is called ________________ action.

receptor, endocrine

14

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the ________________ (specific region of brain). This stimulates release of growth hormone, also known as ________________ from the anterior ______________. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) from the ____________, and IGF-I is actually responsible for many of the effects of growth hormone on milk production, and growth of skeletal muscle and bone. IGF-I can also be secreted from a skeletal muscle fiber, and stimulate protein synthesis in this same muscle fiber. This type of growth factor action is called____________ action.

hypothalymus, somatotropin, pituitary, liver, autocrine

15

Blood from the pulmonary veins enters the heart at the left atrium and is ________________ (oxygenated or deoxygenated). Blood is pumped through the aorta by the left ___________.

oxygenated, ventricle

16

______________ is known as the "fight or flight" hormone, and this hormone is produced by the __________ medulla.

Adrenaline, adrenal

17

__________ (chemical class) hormones, like glucagon, typically act via membrane bound receptors. Steroid hormones typically act via _________________ (location) receptors.

Protein, intraellular

18

Long bone growth occurs at growth plates, which contain epiphyseal _____________ that becomes ossified as the animal reaches its mature sixe. An animal's bones are likely to become ___________ (more or less) dense during lactation or old-age.

cartilage, less

19

Growth of tissues can occur by __________, which is an increase in cell size, or ______________ which is an increase in cell number account for the majority of tissue growth during ____________(embryonice or postnatal) development

hypertrophy, hyperplasia, embryonic

20

The precursor for amine hormones is the amino acid, tyrosine, but steroid hormones are synthesized from _____________, and protein hormones are made up of amino acids.

cholesterol

21

When does most of the body weight gain of a fetus occur? Be specific.

The Third Trimester of pregnancy

22

Provide two reasons why the bones of a female may become less dense as the animal ages.

-disease like osteoporosis
-less stress on the bones from lack of exercise

23

Insulin
a. is secreted from the pancreas
b. is a protein hormone
c. increases glucose uptake in cells
d. increases blood glucose

ABC

24

Triiodothyronine (T3)
a. contains three iodines
b. regulates metabolic rate
c. is classified as a amine hormone
d. causes goiter formation

ABC

25

Skeletal muscle fiber formation
a. occurs before birth of livestock
b. requires differentiation of myoblasts
c. results in formation of multinucleated cells
d. is restricted in runt piglets

ABCD

26

Double muscling
a. is caused by a defect in myosin
b. occurs in dogs, cattle, and humans
c. results from a non-functional myostatin protein
d. results from more and larger muscle fibers

BCD

27

Hormone receptors
a. bind specific hormones with high affinity
b. may be found in the cell nucleus
c. for protein hormones are in/on the cell membrane
d. for all hormones are composed of triglycerides

ABC

28

Cortisol
a. is a steroid hormone
b. is typically increased during stress
c. is produced in the anterior pituitary
d. is also called adrenaline

AB

29

Paracrine action of a growth factor describes secretion by one cell and action on adjacent cells of a different type.

true

30

Apoptosis refers to a joint disease caused by insufficient articular cartilage

Fasle

31

Leptin is produced by adipose tissue, and acts on the brain to decrease the appetite (reduce food intake) of humans and animals. If heifers get too fat. leptin can also impair development of their mammary glands.

True

32

Because locomotion is critical for survival, skeletal muscle has a higher priority for nutrients than the brain, bone, and adipose tissue.

False

33

Bone and skeletal muscle are derived from mesodermal stem cells, whereas internal organs are derived from endoderm, and the brain and skin are derived from ectoderm.

True

34

True growth is the increase in size or mass of structural tissues or organs, but does not include excess fat accumulation.

true

35

Some hormones are synthesized in ductless glands and secreted into the blood, where they travel to another tissue to evoke a response. This type of action is called _____________ action.

endocrine

36

When an endodermal stem cell acquires characteristics that are unique to a liver cell, one could say the cell has undergone the process of _____________.

differentiation?

37

Fetal development represents the last _________% of the prenatal time period.

80-85%