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Flashcards in Animal Growth Section Deck (95):
1

Name some reasons why we should study animal growth?

Disease prevention therapy

Tissue regeneration

Prevent wasting conditions

OptimiZe health and wellbeing

2

Def of growth

Increase in size or mass of structural tissues or organs- does not include excess adipose tissue (fat) deposition

3

Def of hyperplasia

Increase in cell number

4

Hypertrophy def

Increase in cell size due to accretion of cell products

5

Def of differentiation

Process of acquiring characteristics distinct from a progenitor cell or tissue, such as occurs in the progressive diversification of cells and tissues of the embryo

6

What is....

Neonatal

Prenatal

Postnatal

N- newborn

Pre- before birth

Post after

7

Def of allometry

Relationship of growth of a part of an orgnaism to growth of the whole organism

Eng-
Not everything grows at same rate

Exp: calf born with really long legs

8

What does allometry focus on

Tissues that will collect nutrients

9

Def of apoptosis

Programmed cell death

Eng-

Cell destined to die at specific stage of development

Exp: webbed fingers

10

Def of atrophy

Decrease in size of a cell, tissue, organ or part (opposite of hypertrophy)

Due from lack of use usually

11

def of development

Change in form and or function of the animal or tissue which results from changes in rate of increase or decrease of individual components of the body of tissue

Eng- as animal develops it doesn't necessarily look the same some tissues grow faster some slower
Goal: to allow animals to survive/be competitive

12

What is one thing that can influence development give example

Gender

Males grow faster/ larger mature size
Castrate: intermediate
Females: estrogen accelerates closure of growth plates so not as big

*pigs exception

13

What two things get the most nutrients

Brain and central nervous system

14

What do females also give a lot of nutrients to besides brain and central nervous system

Placenta and fetus

15

Explain the growth curve of average daily gain (abcd)

All the components start developing at the same time, but they do so at different rates so some finishes early and others take time

Exp: brain grows fast early but then slows dramatically as you get older

16

In the chart of a market animal growth what grows faster as the animal matures

Fat

17

The animal market chart
What grows at a slow steady rate

Bone growth

18

What does epiphysis mean

What does diaphysis

E- end of bone

A- shaft

19

In the diagram of bones anything that was white in the bone was...

Cartilage

20

As the bone in the bone chart matures, there was ________ cartilage and ________ compact bone

Less

More

21

What is the white space at the end of the bone called? It refers to where the bone is growing...

Epiphyseal growth plate

22

What is within the epiphyseal growth plate

Epiphyseal cartilage

23

What causes a mature bone to be remodeled?

1. Lack of use

2. If another area is in need of calcium
Exp: lactation

24

A myo tube is just a

Immature muscle fiber

25

In muscle fiber formation, what is the window where they are formed

Early- it is done quite a bit before parturition

26

What causes a runt

Nutrient restriction

27

Why could the second set of horses produce a bigger colt compared to the first set if they are the same cross?

The mom in #2 was larger and could provide enough nutrients to produce that bigger colt

28

What is myostatin

Growth factor that inhibits muscle development

29

What do naturally occurring myostatin mutations cause

Double muscling in cattle and other species

30

In double muscling you have a lot more _______

Myofibers

31

What is the name of the common breed that has double muscling

Belgian blue and peadmonte

32

What other animal has the myostatin defect for double muscling but not the extreme end of it

Limousine

33

What does double muscling in cattle cause

More muscle fibers

Larger muscle fibers

Higher% white muscle fibers

Less body fat

High incidence of dystocia (calving difficulty)

34

What is dystocia

Calving difficulty

35

What substitution in myostatin particularly limousine produce an intermediate phenotype without significant negative effects on birth and growth traits

F94L

It changes only one amino acid so less noticeable

36

What two things contribute to post natal muscle growth

DNA accretion

Protein accumulation

37

What happens during DNA accretion

Nuclei incorporated into pre existing muscle fibers by satellite cells

Increase muscle fibers capacity for gene expression and growth

38

What accounts for most of post natal muscle growth /hypertrophy

Protein accumulation

39

When does accumulation of myofibrillar proteins occur? (Protein accumulation)

When protein synthesis exceeds protein degradation

40

What = accumulation /accretion

Synthesis - breakdow

Exp: if you break your leg, breakdown would exceed synthesis=atrophy

41

What is lysine

Amino acid

Biggest restriction on protein accumulation

42

what is a cluster of fat cells called

Lobbule

43

How much does lipid account of tissu

How much do triglycerides account of lipids

76-94%

90-99%

44

How much can the volume of an adipocyte cell increase

Greater than 1000 fold (hypertrophy is important)

45

In the phases of fattening, ________ is followed by _______ but ____________ of new fat cells (hyperplasia) can occur throughout life

Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, recruitment

46

Early in life the cause of the increase in adipose tissue is due to

Increase in # of fat cells (hyperplasia)

47

What is the downside of fat

There is no limit on how much fat you can have

48

Fat cells are all created equal true or fals

False they are not all created equal

49

What is beta-adrenergicagonists

Hormone that binds receptor

50

When an animal is Nutritionally restricted, what happens?

?

51

What is the FDA hormone for growth regulation in pigs

Paylean (ractopamine)

52

What does paylean do

Increases muscle
Decreases fat
Improves efficiency
Saves feed
Reduces waste
Increases stress

53

Name some FDA approved growth regulators in cattle

Estradiol
Progesterone
Optaflexx

54

Which growth regulation in cattle is dismissed

Zilmax

55

What are the oldest and longest improved growth regulations in cattle

Estradiol
Progesterone

56

What is one of the more common growth regulations in cattle

Optaflexx

57

What is the withdrawal time for growth regulations in cAttle

What is the noteable exception to what is not approved as growth prominent

There is none

Growth hormone

58

What is a half life

How long growth promontent stays in body

59

In the bathtub scenario what does optaflexx do with beta agonists

zilmaxx?

Optaflexx- primarily increases protein synthesis or "water flow"

Zilmaxx- primarily reduces protein degradation or "water draining"

60

Def of nutrition

Science that deals with nutrients in food and feed as they relate to health and life

61

Def of nutrient

Any food constituent that aids in support of life

62

The cost of feed is _____ % of the total cost of livestock production

50-80%

63

What are the 6 major classes of nutrients

Water (most important)
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals

64

What is essential versus nonessential nutrients

Essential is nutrients your body cannot synthesis in sufficient quantities to meet needs you need to consume it

65

What distinguishes proteins

Nitrogenous compounds

66

Water soluble vitamins are considered

B-complex vitamins

67

What are some major functions of nutrients

Body maintenance
Growth
Production of meat, milk, wool...
Work (energy/atp)
Reproduction
Regulate body processes

68

What do nutrients regulate body processes

Gene expression
Protein production
Hormone action
Supply energy for metabolic processes

69

In plants vs animals, water

Varies with both 45-90%

70

Animals vs plants carbohydrates are what

High in plants

Low in animals

71

In plants vs animals cell walls/cell membranes consist of

Carbs in plants
Lipid and proteins in animals

72

Plantvs animals
Skeletal consists of

Fiber for plants
Minerals for animals

73

In plants vs animals energy is stored

Plants- starch
Animals- fat and glycogen(carb)

74

What is major carb in animals

Glycogen

75

In water you can what (sources)

Drink eat metabolism

76

What are the functions of water

Transporting medium
Maintains body temp
Solvent

77

Proportions of animals body that is water ________
An embryo to a newborn difference in percentage of proption of water

Varies

90% embryo to 70% newborn shows differentiation

78

All animals depend on nutrients derived by ____________ where sunlight turns water and carbon dioxide into sugar

Photosynthesis

79

What does photosynthesis do

Sunlight turns water and carbon dioxide into sugar

80

What is the equation for photosynthesis

6H2O + 6 CO2 + 673 kcal get turned into C6H12O6 + 6O2

Kcal = energy from sun (atp)

81

What do carbohydrates contain

Carbon hydrogen and oxygen

82

What do carbs include

Sugars
Starches
Cellulose
(Fiber)

83

What are monosaccharides equations

C6H12O6
C5H10O5

84

Name the six carbon sugars monosaccharides

Glucose
Galactose
Fructose
Mannose

85

Name the 5 carbon monosaccharides

Ribose
Arabinose
xylose

86

Glucose and fructose compared show what

That they share common components but diffeeent structural formation

87

Name the disaccharides

Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose

88

What is sucrose made up of?

Maltose

Lactose

Glucose and fructose

Glucose and glucose

Glucose and galactose

89

What is the sweetest disaccharide how much sweeter are the others

Sucrose

1/3 as sweet is maltose
1/6 as sweet is lactose

90

When creating sucrose you bond _____ and _____ to create sucrose and you leave out _____ _____

Glucose and fructose

Metabolic water

91

What are the major source of animal carbohydrates

Polysaccharides

92

Anything with (. ) n means what

You could have thousands of them

93

What's an example of a polysaccharide

Starch

94

Starch is a ________ _________
That is extensively what

No structural carbohydrate
That digests and or ferments rapidly

We digest
Cows ferment

95

What are the major plant kinds of starches

Animal?

Amylose
Amylopectin

Glycogen