AVS 209 Quiz 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AVS 209 Quiz 5 Deck (56):
1

Although corn grain is a primary energy source for livestock diets nationwide, barley, ________, and milo are small grains that require less rainfall and shorter growing seasons than corn

wheat

2

_________ is the gold standard for legumes productivity.

Alfalfa

3

Dry forages

A. are more digestible than roughages
B. have < 70% digestible energy
C. have more crude fiber energy feeds
D. include alfalfa hay and orchardgrass hay
E. have > 18% crude fiber
F. have lower TDN than energy feeds

ABCDEF

4

Legumes have ________ fixing bacteria that form root nodules and can convert the element from the atmosphere to a form used by the plant.

nitrogen

5

Legumes tend to be ________ (higher or lower) in crude protein than grasses

higher

6

Controlled fermentation is used to preserve ________, which is a high moisture feedstuff that is stable for long periods of time and highly palatable when fed

silage

7

If the wilted forage is then fermented, it is called _______

haylage

8

Protein supplements

A. include cottonseed meal and dried distillers grains
B. from animal sources are more palatable than from plants
C. are >20% crude protein
D. include urea only for ruminants

ACD

9

Corn and barley grains would be expected to have

A. less crude protein than canola meal
B. more starch but less protein than alfalfa hay
C. less crude fiber than grass
D. poorer quality protein than whey or plasma

ABCD

10

Oats are highly palatable, but tend to be higher in _______ than corn due to the hull on the grain.

fiber

11

T/F:
Timothy, bromegrass, and orchard grass are all tall, cool season grasses.

True

12

As forage gets more mature

A. ruminants will consume less voluntarily
B. % crude protein will increase
C. % crude fiber will increase
D. dry matter digestibility will increase

AC

13

What are the three nutrient categories in a energy ration

Lipids
Carbohydrates
Proteins

14

In the Net Energy System, what is the correct order?

Gross Energy > Digestible Energy > Metabolizable Energy> Net Engery

15

Essential vs. Non-Essential Amino Acids

Essential: Amino acids that are limiting and needs to be absorbed
Non-Essential: Amino acid that aren't limiting and are digested

(? Worded correctly? )

16

What are the first limiting amino acids

methionine and lysine

17

What is it called when the animal or plant product consumed by an animal?

Feedstuff

18

What are the 6 categories of nutrients

proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and water

19

Corn and wheat grains would be expected to have

A. less crude protein than cottonseed meal
B. more energy but less protein than alfalfa hay
C. less crude fiber than grass
D. more digestible energy than grass

ABCD

20

Feed should always be compared, purchased, and used formulate rations on a _________ basis.

Dry matter

21

Protein Supplements for livestock

A. include dried distillers grains and dried plasma
B. are more palatable from plant vs animal sources
C. include bone meal and oyster shells
D. are > 20 % crude protein, by definition

ABD

22

When forage is chopped and fed as is, it is called ______

green chop

23

Once green chop is dried, it is called ______

hay

24

Commercial feed tags should

A. list the most abundant ingredients first
B. state the maximum % crude fiber
C indicate minimum % crude protein and fat
D say "medicated" if feed contains animal by-products

ABC

25

T/F:
The amount of feed an animal receives in a 24-hour period is called a ration

True

26

Animals consume feed to meet a daily need for _________

Dry Matter

27

_______ is an energy index on a carbohydrate equivalent basis

TDN> Total Digestible Nutrients

28

Protein is...

A. Usually the most expensive component of rations
B. Looks for amino acids, not protein
C. Requirements is greatest in young growing animals and declines with maturity
D. Looks for protein, not amino acids

ABC

29

Biochemical substances used by the body to sustain life is called....

Nutrient

30

What does NDF stand for

Neutral Detergent Fiber

31

T/F:
Protein is usually the most expensive component of rations, and monogastrics have a stricter requirement for dietary amino acids than ruminants that obtain amino acids from bacteria

True

32

_______ are non-nutritive additives that increase production of rumen propionate and decrease acetate, which results in increased efficiency of feed utilization

Ionophores

33

What does ADF stand for

Acid Detergent Fiber

34

T/F:
Wheat straw is a roughage that may provide "scratch factor" and help maintain rumen tone and digestive tract health

True

35

Ether extraction is used to determine _______ content in a feed sample

fat

36

Crude protein is calculated by determining the _______ content of a feed, and multiplying this number by 6.25, because protein is approximately _____ of this element

nitrogen, 16%

37

Orchardgrass
A. Tall warm season bunch-grass
B. Productive early in the season
C. Tolerates warmer weather
D. Does not tolerate close grazing

BCD

38

T/F:
Timothy is a more productive than Brome or Orchardgrass

False > less productive

39

T/F:
Energy feeds- primary grain source heavily dependent on soil and climate

T

40

T/F:
Corn, barley, alfalfa, clover, and birdsfoot trefoil are legumes that can cause acidosis of fed in excess

False

41

A ration

A. is the feed an animal receives in a 24-hour period
B. can only be balanced if nutrient composition of feed and nutrient requirements are known
C. is usually balanced for energy first
D. will often have added lysine for swine and added methionine for poultry

ABCD

42

Compared with grasses, legumes generally

A. have higher % crude protein
B. are higher in calcium
C. are more likely to cause bloat
D. have ~2x more TDN

ABC

43

T/F:
Corn grain is the primary energy source in areas with higher GDD (growing degree days)

T

44

Oilseed

A. cultivated to extract oil from seed
B. generally multiple seeds per pod
C. After oil extraction, meal is left
D. is a common legume harvested for its seed

ABC

45

Name the energy feeds?

Corn, Barley, Oats, and Milo (Sorghum)

46

Name the protein feeds?

Soybeans, Canola, Oilseed, pulse

47

Dry Matter (DM) basis equation

DM= As-Fed (AF) x % DM
%DM + % Moisture= 100%

Know the equation

48

Example: a batch of 20 kg of hay contains 10% moisture. What is the DM and % DM

A: %DM + 10%=100% = 90% DM
DM= 20 kg x 90% = 18 kg DM

49

Digestibility

(total Consumed - total fecal) / Total consumed x 100 = %DM

Digestibility equation

50

Crude Protein Equation
% N (nitrogen) x 6.25= CP

Just in case>>> Crude protein equation

51

A fiber analysis will reveal the most digestible fiber, which is __________, as well as __________ and lignin. The latter is and indigestible component of forage that increases with maturity.

hemicellulose, cellulose

52

What are 2 major national/global events that impact which forage or grain source is fed at UI?

Prices, availability, diseases

53

Compare and contrast silage and hay. Why include both in the diet, instead of just 1

Silage is fermented and is anaerobic
Hay comes from alfalfa and is wanted for bulk in the ration.

Dry matter
Digests differently

54

What are the forage grasses?

Orchardgrass, Timothy,Bluegrass, Bromegrass

55

What are some legumes?

Alfalfa, Birdfoot, Red clover, White clover

56

Energy feed are feed that are dense in _____

NFC Non-Fiber Carbohydrates