Flashcards in AVS 209 Quiz 5 Deck (56):
Although corn grain is a primary energy source for livestock diets nationwide, barley, ________, and milo are small grains that require less rainfall and shorter growing seasons than corn
_________ is the gold standard for legumes productivity.
A. are more digestible than roughages
B. have < 70% digestible energy
C. have more crude fiber energy feeds
D. include alfalfa hay and orchardgrass hay
E. have > 18% crude fiber
F. have lower TDN than energy feeds
Legumes have ________ fixing bacteria that form root nodules and can convert the element from the atmosphere to a form used by the plant.
Legumes tend to be ________ (higher or lower) in crude protein than grasses
Controlled fermentation is used to preserve ________, which is a high moisture feedstuff that is stable for long periods of time and highly palatable when fed
If the wilted forage is then fermented, it is called _______
A. include cottonseed meal and dried distillers grains
B. from animal sources are more palatable than from plants
C. are >20% crude protein
D. include urea only for ruminants
Corn and barley grains would be expected to have
A. less crude protein than canola meal
B. more starch but less protein than alfalfa hay
C. less crude fiber than grass
D. poorer quality protein than whey or plasma
Oats are highly palatable, but tend to be higher in _______ than corn due to the hull on the grain.
Timothy, bromegrass, and orchard grass are all tall, cool season grasses.
As forage gets more mature
A. ruminants will consume less voluntarily
B. % crude protein will increase
C. % crude fiber will increase
D. dry matter digestibility will increase
What are the three nutrient categories in a energy ration
In the Net Energy System, what is the correct order?
Gross Energy > Digestible Energy > Metabolizable Energy> Net Engery
Essential vs. Non-Essential Amino Acids
Essential: Amino acids that are limiting and needs to be absorbed
Non-Essential: Amino acid that aren't limiting and are digested
(? Worded correctly? )
What are the first limiting amino acids
methionine and lysine
What is it called when the animal or plant product consumed by an animal?
What are the 6 categories of nutrients
proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and water
Corn and wheat grains would be expected to have
A. less crude protein than cottonseed meal
B. more energy but less protein than alfalfa hay
C. less crude fiber than grass
D. more digestible energy than grass
Feed should always be compared, purchased, and used formulate rations on a _________ basis.
Protein Supplements for livestock
A. include dried distillers grains and dried plasma
B. are more palatable from plant vs animal sources
C. include bone meal and oyster shells
D. are > 20 % crude protein, by definition
When forage is chopped and fed as is, it is called ______
Once green chop is dried, it is called ______
Commercial feed tags should
A. list the most abundant ingredients first
B. state the maximum % crude fiber
C indicate minimum % crude protein and fat
D say "medicated" if feed contains animal by-products
The amount of feed an animal receives in a 24-hour period is called a ration
Animals consume feed to meet a daily need for _________
_______ is an energy index on a carbohydrate equivalent basis
TDN> Total Digestible Nutrients
A. Usually the most expensive component of rations
B. Looks for amino acids, not protein
C. Requirements is greatest in young growing animals and declines with maturity
D. Looks for protein, not amino acids
Biochemical substances used by the body to sustain life is called....
What does NDF stand for
Neutral Detergent Fiber
Protein is usually the most expensive component of rations, and monogastrics have a stricter requirement for dietary amino acids than ruminants that obtain amino acids from bacteria
_______ are non-nutritive additives that increase production of rumen propionate and decrease acetate, which results in increased efficiency of feed utilization
What does ADF stand for
Acid Detergent Fiber
Wheat straw is a roughage that may provide "scratch factor" and help maintain rumen tone and digestive tract health
Ether extraction is used to determine _______ content in a feed sample
Crude protein is calculated by determining the _______ content of a feed, and multiplying this number by 6.25, because protein is approximately _____ of this element
A. Tall warm season bunch-grass
B. Productive early in the season
C. Tolerates warmer weather
D. Does not tolerate close grazing
Timothy is a more productive than Brome or Orchardgrass
False > less productive
Energy feeds- primary grain source heavily dependent on soil and climate
Corn, barley, alfalfa, clover, and birdsfoot trefoil are legumes that can cause acidosis of fed in excess
A. is the feed an animal receives in a 24-hour period
B. can only be balanced if nutrient composition of feed and nutrient requirements are known
C. is usually balanced for energy first
D. will often have added lysine for swine and added methionine for poultry
Compared with grasses, legumes generally
A. have higher % crude protein
B. are higher in calcium
C. are more likely to cause bloat
D. have ~2x more TDN
Corn grain is the primary energy source in areas with higher GDD (growing degree days)
A. cultivated to extract oil from seed
B. generally multiple seeds per pod
C. After oil extraction, meal is left
D. is a common legume harvested for its seed
Name the energy feeds?
Corn, Barley, Oats, and Milo (Sorghum)
Name the protein feeds?
Soybeans, Canola, Oilseed, pulse
Dry Matter (DM) basis equation
DM= As-Fed (AF) x % DM
%DM + % Moisture= 100%
Know the equation
Example: a batch of 20 kg of hay contains 10% moisture. What is the DM and % DM
A: %DM + 10%=100% = 90% DM
DM= 20 kg x 90% = 18 kg DM
(total Consumed - total fecal) / Total consumed x 100 = %DM
Crude Protein Equation
% N (nitrogen) x 6.25= CP
Just in case>>> Crude protein equation
A fiber analysis will reveal the most digestible fiber, which is __________, as well as __________ and lignin. The latter is and indigestible component of forage that increases with maturity.
What are 2 major national/global events that impact which forage or grain source is fed at UI?
Prices, availability, diseases
Compare and contrast silage and hay. Why include both in the diet, instead of just 1
Silage is fermented and is anaerobic
Hay comes from alfalfa and is wanted for bulk in the ration.
What are the forage grasses?
Orchardgrass, Timothy,Bluegrass, Bromegrass
What are some legumes?
Alfalfa, Birdfoot, Red clover, White clover